Christian Apologetics Study



Today many Christians embrace either an old or young Earth creation interpretation for Genesis chapters one and two. Since Darwin, creation scientists have been developing new creation theories.

Today Genesis creation science theories are many because since the development of modern science, biblical scholars, Christian bible believers, and bible believing creation science researchers try to harmonize the scientific evidence with the Bible, while attempting to avoid both pseudo-science and biblical misinterpretation. Since then, a multitude of interpretations of the Creation “days” of Genesis chapters one and two have emerged. For many creation scientists, the Genesis creation account is both a fact and theory. The Genesis creation account is fact because it is supported by the weight of biblical and scientific evidence and research, according to many bible believing creation science researchers. However, the Genesis creation history is a theory because no man or woman was there to observe the creation of the physical universe, planet earth, and biological life. This fact has resulted in the development of several biblical creation science theories. A summary of the major biblical creation theories include: theistic evolution theory, literary theory, creation day theory, progressive creation theory, creation revelation theory, day age theory, gap theory, and young earth creation theory.


The Theistic Evolution Theory accepts the naturalistic evolutionary explanation as the mechanisms for origin of the universe about 16 billion years past, the cosmic formation of earth about 4.5 billion years past, and the development of life on planet Earth from a single primeval cell existing about 3.5 billion years ago. A few theistic evolutionists believe abiogenesis is impossible without a direct act of God, and others assume God created the universe in such a way that life would eventually evolve naturally, according to Dr. Francis Collins. However, conservative biblical scholars and science researchers argue that this is an unbiblical and unscientific theory because the bible only teaches supernatural creation from Genesis to Revelation and the weight of scientific evidence demonstrates that evolution is impossible under purely naturalistic conditions, according Dr. Henry Morris. Creation science researchers have demonstrated that genetic mutations cannot build brand new genetic information; therefore, land animals cannot become whales, dolphins, and seals; dinosaurs cannot evolve into birds; apes cannot become humans, according to Dr. Georgia Purdon.


The Literary Theory says that Genesis chapter one is a praise metaphorical statement, but not about what actually happened based on a literal scientific account. This theory’s proponents speak of the near-poetic literary features in the majestic account with parallels elsewhere about poetic creation descriptions (Pslam. 104; Isaiah. 40; Job 38). Others argue that the chapter is a deliberate literary ancient Near Eastern “pagan” creation version adaptation and an intentional parody of idolatry and a defense of the one true God who created all things, according to many liberal biblical scholars. The problem with this theory is that subsequent biblical passages treat Genesis chapters one and two as literal and factual history, according to Dr. Grant Jeffrey.


The “Creation Day” Theory says we must not impose our concept of a 24-hour day on the beginning of time. Since that would amount to an anachronism of the highest magnitude, God created the world and all life in six “creation days,” however defined. Accordingly, the implied ambiguity and flexibility in the days is seen in Genesis. 1:14, where the heavenly bodies do not mark time as we know it until Day Four. Genesis 2:4 begins a zoom-lens description of man’s place in creation, all of which occurs “in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.” Furthermore, God rested on the seventh day, but there is no closure to it in the familiar manner: “And there was evening and there was morning, a day.” Moreover, John 5:17 and Hebrews 4:3-11 could imply continuity to the seventh day “rest.” A modern variant of this view is seen in The Science of God (1997), where Dr. Gerald Schroeder uses Einstein’s theory of relativity to argue for the compatibility of an ancient universe model with the six-day timetable of Genesis one. He holds that the six, literal 24-hour days of creation must be measured by a universal time clock at the beginning of creation in an expanding universe – not by time as we count it today. Moreover, he maintains that the created progression of Genesis one fits precisely with the appearance of conditions and life forms in the order that can be known by science. Mathematical equations are supplied in abundance to show how seven literal creation days could correspond with eons of time within the framework of the theory of relativity (II Pet. 3:8). Although Schroeder’s creation theory appears to be biblically and scientifically supported, he still employs an old universe, ancient earth, and primitive life creation model, which is not consistent with Genesis chapters one and two and Exodus 20:11, according to Dr. Carl Baugh.


The Progressive Creation Theory argues for six non-consecutive days of creative activity, with eons of time separating each day. This view interprets the language of Genesis chapter one to specify “one day,” “a second day,” “a third day,” and a fourth day. Dr. Hugh Ross is a major supporter of this view. Many scientifically trained Christians support this view. However, the major problem with this theory is that progressive creation involves millions of years of death and destruction before God declares his creation as God. Progressive creation appears inconsistent with God’s nature and power because God declared that His creation was good during the seven creation days and He is omniscient and omnipotent. In other words, God does not call millions of years of death and destruction as good, He does not need to learn over time, and His many creation acts are done rapidly with little or no time at all. Progressive creation is really the theory of evolution wearing the clothing of creationism because it attempts to fill in the gaps with God in places where evolution has no naturalistic explanation, according to creation researchers Dr. Henry Morris and Ken Ham.


The Genesis Creation Revelation Theory say Genesis chapter one and parts of Genesis chapter two describe Moses’ creation vision. Many proponents of this view argue that events were revealed to Moses during six consecutive days, and each day represents what was revealed, not what historically happened, in a 24-hour period. Duane Garrett argues that the seven creation days have a six plus one heptadic structure, which is found elsewhere in apocalyptic literature. In Revelation 6:1-8:1; 8:2-11:19; and 16:1- 21, “the pattern is of six related events followed by a seventh”: seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven bowls of wrath, with the seventh component of each series fundamentally different from the preceding six. Garrett continues, “But there is more in parallel here than form alone. Both are similar in objective because both give an historic and eschatological perspective. Revelation gives human history’s heavenly view with dramatic illustrations of its culmination. Likewise, Genesis chapter one focuses on the universe’s creation, its history, and its destiny. Garrett believes that Genesis 1:1 to 2:4 is decorated with visionary and revelatory depictions by Moses, who is the premier prophet in the Old Testament Hebrew Scriptures. He believes that Moses is the direct author of this material. Garrett finds the six plus one pattern in one other place, in Exodus 24:16-18, where Moses ascends Mt. Sinai. On the first six days, the cloud covers the mountain. On the seventh day, Moses goes up into the cloud. Consequently, Garrett argues that the days in Genesis chapter one are “seven days of divine revelation to Moses”. While this theory appears to solve the conflict between science and religion, there is insufficient evidence for this view in the Holy Scriptures. Moses wrote in Exodus 20:11 that in six days God created the heavens and earth and all physical existence.


The Day-Age Theory says that the seven days comprise a biblical chronology, and each day represents a prophetic picture of the distant past, a factual yet unclear flicker of divine truth wherein a “day” parallels an age of vast activity. Just as prophetic depictions of the distant future horizon use figurative chronological markers, is it possible that Genesis chapter one employs a “prophetic” summary of the primeval past? When comparing Genesis chapter one to the fossil record, Frederick Godet argues that God’s purpose was to teach Moses creation history in six days without revealing the long ages necessary for the creation of the universe and formation of life upon the Earth. He believes that God passed before Moses’ eyes creation images, representing the most characteristic phases of the entire creation work during six days. Moses later preserved for future readers a memorial of these phases, but without having himself penetrated into their scientific meanings in detail, any more than the prophets were able to completely understand their prophetic visions. The Day-Age Theory is very similar to the Revelation Theory because it argues for six literal days while allowing for long creation ages.


The traditional gap theory version says that the creation week’s First Day does not begin until Genesis 1:3 and a gap of eons of time existed between verse 1 and verse 2 in Genesis. This theory’s many advocates speculate that life existed and was destroyed when the Earth became “waste and void” (1:2). The gap theory was invented by Thomas Chalmers as response to scientific research saying the planet Earth was old. Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), a notable Scottish theologian and first moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, was perhaps the man most responsible for the gap theory. The idea can be traced back to the rather obscure writings of the Dutchman Episcopius (1583-1643), and was first recorded from one of Chalmers’ lectures in 1814. Rev. William Buckland, a geologist, did much to popularize the idea. Famous supporters of the gap theory include: author G.H Pember and Rev Clarence Larkin. Thier version of the gap theory does not appear to be supported by biblical and scientific evidence because the bible does not describe Satan’s fall (Isaiah 14, Ezekiel 28, Revelation 12) until after the creation week and the weight of scientific evidence reveals one global cataclysmic event in Earth’s history (Noah’s Global Flood).

Modern versions of the gap theory argue that the creation week’s First Day began in Genesis 1:3 and a gap of time existed between verse1 and verse 2 in Genesis. In other words, God created the universe roughly 16 billion years ago before creating the planet Earth around 4.5 billion years ago prior to renovating the Earth’s surface and placing life on the planet Earth around six or seven thousand years ago. Many gap theorists argue that the Creation Week days were normal 24-hour solar days, while a few gap theorists argue that each creation day was either a thousand years (Psalm 90, 2-Peter 3:8) or a year in duration (Daniel 9, Ezekiel 4). This modern version of the gap theory argues that the universe is old, but life on planet Earth is very recent and young. Gap theorists argue the whole bible employs the language of visual appearance, but never the language of precise scientific description; therefore, after Genesis 1:1, the creation history is told from the perspective of the Earth’s surface or from a geocentric orientation.


Finally, the Young Earth Creation Theory appears to be the most biblical and scientific view. This theory argue that God created the Universe thousands of years ago before creating all known life forms in six consecutive, literal days (24 hours) , as we count time today on planet Earth (Genesis, 1, 2, and Exodus 20:11). One potential problem for this creation theory is the science of astronomy. If the light from a star is 10 million light years away, then that light presumably takes 10 million years to reach the planet earth, and astronomers are witnessing ancient history. While God could have created the light in such a manner to appear much older than it really is, how does an astronomer explain star explosions from distant places in the universe? Do astronomers witness explosions from stars that never existed? Do these explosions somehow exceed the known speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second)? Or is it possible that the universe is much older than young-earth creation science researchers believe it is? Many young earth creation astronomers answer these questions with scientific research indicating that the universe expanded

rapidly during the creation week causing gravitational space time dilation, according to astrophysicist Dr. Russell Humphreys. Additionally, they argue that the speed of light was faster during the past than it is today, according to astrophysicist Barry Setterfield. In other words, the slowing down of light-speed along with gravitational space time dilation makes the universe appear to be 16 billion years old when it actually could be less than 10,000 years old, according to Dr. Chuck Missler.


    • Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003.
    • Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998.
    • Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992.
    • Inspired Evidence; Bruce Malone;2011.
    • Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990.
    • Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000.
    • The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851.
    • The Genesis Conflict; Dr. Walter Veith; 2002.
    • The New Answers Book1; Ken Ham; 2006.
    • The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008.
    • The New Answers Book3; Ken Ham; 2010.
    • The New Answers Book4; Ken Ham; 2014.
    • The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982.
    • The Speed of Light Commentary; Barry Setterfield; 1998.
    • The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010.
    • Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999.
    • Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002.


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