Christian Apologetics Study



The Nephilim were here on Earth. Hundreds of excavated graves scattered throughout the world provide evidence of their genetic abomination and the product of the breeding of heavenly angels with the women of Earth during the Days of Noah. These ancient builders left behind evidence of their supernatural strength and technological know-how. Their massive, megalithic structures are legendary and evidence of Nephilim architecture abounds worldwide and even in the United States of America, according to author and Nephilim researcher L.A. Marzulli and others.


The Nephilim originate from inter-dimensional beings that operate within our space-time dimensions and the other dimensions existing beyond our physical universe. They are highly malevolent, pernicious, and evil beings with a nefarious agenda. The Book of Genesis (Genesis 6:4) says the sons of God (the fallen angels) saw the daughters of men and chose for themselves wives and their sexual union with human females produced hybrid warriors called Nephilims. Some of these Nephilim were gigantic (8 to 12 feet tall on average) and some of them had elongated skulls. However, many Nephilim remains show that some of them were smaller in physical size (5 feet 9 inches to 6 feet tall) with elongated skulls.


Messiah Yeshua says that “as it was during the days of Noah, so will it be when the son of man returns” (Matthew 24:37). Yeshua was signaling the days of Noah to this final generation because he was comparing it with the generation of Noah. In Noah’s day, the fallen angels openly revealed themselves to the human inhabitants on the pre-flood Earth. A few biblical eschatology experts believe the fallen angels will do the same again within the near future when the Church has departed from Earth in the Rapture Event (1-Thessalonians 4:16 and 1-corinthians 15:51-55). Between the Rapture of Messiah’s Church and the Revelation of Yeshua, the entire world will be like the Days of Noah. This means that fallen angels will have sexual relations with the human females again, and thus producing a new generation of Nephilim hybrids.

The Most High God of the universe is at war with the fallen angels and God never shows mercy to these fallen angels and their offspring because of their extreme evil nature. The Nephilim are created in the image of Satan and his fallen angelic followers and they have a satanic compulsion to destroy all things reminding them of God almighty. A few eschatology experts believe that the reason why God showed no mercy to the Canaanites and the people living in Sodom and Gomorrah was because these populations were decorated with Nephilim hybrids. If the Nephilim were among these populations, then the mandate is always to wipe them out before they corrupt their surrounding neighbors. Many of these Nephilim civilizations practice sexual immorality, sexual violence, and human sacrifices to fallen angels.


There are old newspaper articles from the 1800s and 1900s about Nephilim hybrids. A few experts believe that the Nephilim occupied North America because around 150 years ago when settlers pushed westward they found burial mounds. And at first, investigators thought these were Native Americans. However, when they would dig into these mounds and they would find the remains of large people about 8 to 11 feet tall and some of the people had six fingers, double rows of teeth, and copper ornaments. Many of these people had dark reddish-brown hair.

These tall people appear physically different from indigenous Native Americans. According to First Nation Native Americans, there was a population of gigantic people that predated them. They were here when they arrived.  Many Paiute tribal elders say that there were cannibal giants occupying the land when they arrived. These people were very large and the Paiute would fight against these giants, following a great battle, the Paiute warriors herded them into a cave before they set the mouth of the cave on fire, and they completely wiped out that tribe of giants. This cave can be found today.


The Smithsonian Institute has been covering up information related to the Nephilim presence in North America and elsewhere for many years. Nephilim researchers have discovered case after case of gigantic people about 8 to 12 feet tall that lived in North America. However, when the Smithsonian investigators arrive on the scene, they simply confiscate the bones, and they put them in crates, and the bones of these giants are carried away never to be seen again. The Smithsonian commits this crime against history and humanity because its leadership adheres to a Darwinian paradigm, the evolutionary worldview. Because they believe in Darwinism, anything that comes up against that paradigm, anything that comes up against it must be put aside, dumbed down, and just completely cleared off the table. The presence of Nephilim hybrids goes against Darwinism because people with gigantic elongated cranial capacity of 18 CC and greater should not live in North America for centuries before the arrival of Native Americans and Europeans. Where did these people come from?

The Nephilim do not appear to have arrived by Beringia Land Bridge when during the Ice Age, the Native American populations came across the Bering Strait. These people probably came from the Middle East. A few biblical experts believe the tribes in North American and in South American are the remnants of the Nephilim tribes that Joshua and Caleb pushed out of the Promised Land when they conquered it around 3500 years ago. As the Israelite warriors begin to move in to the Promised Land, the Nephilim giants would see what is happening to their people and that the Israelites, with God’s help, are annihilating all the Nephilim tribes. Some of Amorites, Perrizzites, and other Nephilim tribes flee northward. Some of them flee across the Atlantic Ocean.  The works of Thor Heyerdahl for instance prove that you could sail just on the water currents from Egypt and the Atlantic and wind up in South America.


While some Nephilim skulls appear human looking, some skulls are elongated and strange in appearance. A normal human skull consists of three main bone plates: the frontal plate, which ends at the upper part of the forehead, and the two parietal plates which lie behind this, intersecting the frontal plate making a “T” shape. What we notice in Nephilim skulls are their frontal plates are greatly enlarged, and they have strange ridge bones, and they have one parietal plate where there should be two parietal plates. The male Nephilim skulls are larger much more robust than females. The hair on many of these skulls is red, sort of a reddish auburn in color. Many skulls were found that still exist in Ica, Peru, and Merida, Mexico. They have a brain cavity area ranging from 2200 CC to 3200 CC. Modern humans average 1450 CC in size with the largest human skull to date at 1980 CC. All these skulls have Neanderthal (post-flood humans) characteristics. They are huge in size and come from an unknown species according to science.  In fact according to science they do not exist at all but for the fact that they are view-able today.


Megalithic architecture describes ancient stonework constructed from very large blocks of stone. And we see them all over the world. A few eschatology and biblical experts believe that there were Nephilim hybrids that were giants in mathematics, science, engineering, and strange technologies in antiquity. They were responsible for building the Egyptian pyramids and the pyramids in civilizations in Central and South America. Many depictions of Nephilim hybrids are found among the illustrations and drawings of the ancient Egyptians. We see some Egyptian rulers in antiquity with elongated skulls. In Egypt, the Nephilim had developed machines that used electricity and they were doing experiments on flying machines, and underwater vessels. They employed the technology of sound to move gigantic stones that weighed tons. They had developed concrete for building the first pyramid with the help of Imhotep the great Egyptian builder and engineer. The Nephilim probably constructed the Stonehenge circle monument in Wiltshire, England.


There is an alternate “gospel” gaining in intensity in the world today. Many biblical eschatology experts call it the Alien Gospel.  Through their research they have found evidence of an “alien conspiracy” merged with the Darwinism philosophy. These “aliens” (fallen angels) will return invoking the Great Deception, claiming they were the ones who seeded life and that they are the alien messiah. They probably will offer two things: free energy and a DNA “upgrade.” Many will be deceived, but the truth behind this lie is that there are no aliens. Some eschatology experts are convinced that these “aliens” are the return of the fallen angels that produced the Nephilim. They will  be the same Nephilim that were destroyed during the Days of Noah.

In the Days of Noah, fallen angels descended and mixed with human women producing Nephilim as their offspring. These same fallen angels shared the technology of heaven with primitive man and the Nephilim. This is why we have megalithic structures on Earth that can conduct electricity, tell astronomical events, and when viewed from the air, link together, in a type of ancient GPS, just as it was in the Days of Noah. This will happen again when the fallen angels return. The Mark of the Beast referred to in the book of Revelation is probably a DNA “upgrade” that the fallen angels will offer to a deceived humanity.

Many Christians understand that the mark will be taken in the right hand or forehead and will give one the ability to buy and trade, but there is more to this picture. This mark will give one the ability to resist disease and lead to an unnatural lifespan of 500 and more years. Men and women will seek death, but will not be unable to find it. Grievous sores will ap

pear on their bodies and, in the end, they will end up  in the lake of fire. Why? Because, taking a mark that “upgrades” your DNA will gradually stransform your DNA, through fallen angel technology, into that of a modern day Nephilim.


It’s Supernatural: Sid Roth Interviews L.A. Marzulli. On the trail of the Nephilim; L.A. Marzulli; 2013. Mishpochah Magazine; Sid Roth; 2013. Dispensational Truth by Rev. Clerance Larkin.





The Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon populations were fully human beings that lived during the early post-Flood era.  Morphologically these people were physically stronger than modern humans because of the superior post-flood environment. A few creation science researchers believe many modern humans originate from these human groups.


Neanderthal populations were humans that occupied much of Europe, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and North Africa regions. Many within the scientific community believe they lived around 250,000 to 25,000 years ago. However, creation science researchers believe Neanderthals were part of the early post-flood population groups.  The Neanderthal name derives from the discovery in 1856 of remains in a cave above Germany’s Neander Valley. Neanderthals were short, stocky, and powerful. They were physical stronger than modern humans because of their greater muscle mass and denser bones. The men were 168 centimeters (5 feet 6 inches) tall and the women were 156 centimeters (5 feet 2 inches) tall. Cranial capacity equaled or surpassed that of modern humans and their braincases were long, low, and wide. Their limbs were heavy, but they walked fully erect and had hands as capable as those of modern humans. Neanderthal remains have been found showing evidence of verbal communication, spirituality in their culture, caring for their sick, and practicing dentistry. Therefore, Neanderthal populations qualify for true human status based on their physical morphology, their brain size, their culture and belief in the supernatural.


Cro-Magnon people were first discovered in 1868 at the Cro-Magnon rock shelter in the Dordogne region in southern France, the human skeletons that came to be called Cro-Magnon are now considered representative of humans at that time.  Cro-Magnons were relatively more robust and powerful than modern humans and they had larger brain cranial capacity.  Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals. Many Cro-Magnon men were roughly 176 centimeters (5 feet 8 inches) tall, but a few males stood an impressive 200 centimeters (6 feet 6 inches) and fewer stood even taller.

“Cro-Magnon man” is represented by the remains of five individuals found in 1868. The remains were three adult males, one adult female, and one infant. Darwinists hold that Neanderthal is either a subspecies of humans or as a separate species.  They hold that Cro-Magnon is an early modern human.  However, recent finds of Cro-Magnons with ‘Neanderthal traits’ were found in Lagar Velho in Portugal and interpreted as indications of extensively admixed populations.

The bodies of the “Cro-Magnon” people were discovered by Louis Lartet and Henry Christy in March of 1868.  Darwinists claim these remains are 31,000 years old. However, these remains better fit the time frame shortly after the global flood.  Cro-Magnon man was a true human and looked just like modern humans (you and me). They ate vegetation and meat, and hunted many animals. They had a culture and religion. Cro-Magnon populations used sophisticated tools made of wood and stone and they used fire. Therefore, the Cro-Magnon populations qualify for true human status based on their physical morphology, their brain size, their culture and religious belief system.


Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal people were fully human descendants of Noah and his family. Cro-Magnon populations did not kill off the Neanderthal populations, but replaced them gradually.  As time went on, people did not live very long as they did before the global flood. This fact means that the same bone thickening alterations that occurred in Neanderthal people during their old age would have occurred in Cro-Magnon, but to a reduced extent. This is because Cro-Magnon people never lived long enough for these bone growths to occur. Cro-Magnon people are probably direct descendant of the Neanderthals because they are not a separate species of humankind, according to Dr. Jack Cuozzo.

The environmental processes that shortened the life span of man had proliferated considerably following the flood. Neanderthals were people who lived shortly after the global flood.  The skeletal remains of “Neanderthal” and “Cro-Magnon” populations are all fully human. Their remains represent the descendants of Noah, who were living very long lives in a harsh post-flood world. Therefore, while many Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon people lived short dangerous and violent lives, a few Neanderthals lived for 400 years and a few Cro-Magnon people lived for 200 years.  Many modern humans are descended from these post-flood populations and we would appear more like them in our anatomical morphology if we were living longer than 120 years, according to Dr. Jack Cuozzo.

CREATION SCIENCE SOURCES: Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003.Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998.Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992.Inspired Evidence; Bruce Malone;2011.Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990.Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000.The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851.The Genesis Conflict; Dr. Walter Veith; 2002.The New Answers Book1; Ken Ham; 2006.The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008.The New Answers Book3; Ken Ham; 2010.The New Answers Book4; Ken Ham; 2014.The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982.The Speed of Light Commentary; Barry Setterfield; 1998.The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010.Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999.Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002.





Dinosaurs are extinct reptiles that were the dominant land animals during the pre-flood  and early post-flood eras. By the early 1800s, many large dinosaurs became extinct, but a few dinosaurs may still be alive in remote regions of Africa, Siberia, Central America, and South America.

Today, we have been taught that dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago.  Many paleontology experts believed these reptiles lived during the Mesozoic Era (between 250 to 65 million years ago). Their theories were developed by the corruptions of Darwinism before many dinosaur fossil discoveries had been made.  Within the past few decades, new fossils are being found and with blood still inside soft tissue and bone.  While many older fossils may have blood in them, they simply have not been cut open to look inside because evolutionism teaches that it is impossible for any blood to remain in animals for 65 million years. They are absolutely right in their conclusions because there is no way blood could survive for millions of years, but it is possible for soft tissue and blood to survive for thousands years under ideal conditions.  Recent scientific investigation and testing show that cells and DNA break down within a few thousand years.  This scientific data confirms that dinosaur remains are thousands years old and not millions of years old.


Before the 19th century, dinosaurs were called dragons.  The word “DINOSAURIA” was invented by Dr. Richard Owen, who was a famous British scientist (1804 to 1892).  The word DINOSAURIA became DIONSAUR and it means terrible lizard. The word dragon also means terrible lizard.  They are mentioned many times in ancient historical documents, including the Holy Scriptures.  Many within the scientific community believe that dinosaurs are reptiles.  Because reptiles never stop growing physically, the older dinosaurs are bigger than the younger dinosaurs. Therefore, many dinosaurs are very old reptiles, but of species which are extinct today. A few dinosaurs had posture that was fully erect, similar to that in mammals, while many other reptiles have limbs in a sprawling position.

The Holy Scriptures reveal that God created land animals and humankind on the sixth day of creation. Because dinosaurs were land animals, they must have been made on this day, alongside the first human beings (the man called Adam and the woman called Eve), who were also created on the same day (Genesis 1:24-31, Job 40:15).  If God designed and created dinosaurs, they would have been fully functional, designed to do what they were created for, and would have been 100 percent dinosaur. This fits exactly with the evidence from the fossil record.


Today philosophical naturalists seek to make us believe that dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago to help support their belief in Darwinism. However, if this dogma were true, there would never have been any interaction between men and dinosaurs.  There are many accounts of dragons in history found all around the world.  There are famous dinosaur and human accounts in the Holy Bible when we read about the Behemoth in Job 40 and the Leviathan in Job chapter 41.

The Behemoth:  “Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you and which feeds on grass like an ox. What strength it has in its loins, what power in the muscles of its belly! Its tail sways like a cedar; the sinews of its thighs are close-knit. Its bones are tubes of bronze, its limbs like rods of iron. It ranks first among the works of God, yet its Maker can approach it with his sword. The hills bring it their produce, and all the wild animals play nearby. Under the lotus plants it lies, hidden among the reeds in the marsh. The lotuses conceal it in their shadow; the poplars by the stream surround it. A raging river does not alarm it; it is secure, though the Jordan should surge against its mouth. Can anyone capture it by the eyes, or trap it and pierce its nose?” (Genesis 40:15-24 NIV).

The Leviathan: “Can you pull in Leviathan with a fishhook or tie down its tongue with a rope? Can you put a cord through its nose or pierce its jaw with a hook? Will it keep begging you for mercy? Will it speak to you with gentle words? Will it make an agreement with you for you to take it as your slave for life? Can you make a pet of it like a bird or put it on a leash for the young women in your house? Will traders barter for it? Will they divide it up among the merchants? Can you fill its hide with harpoons or its head with fishing spears? If you lay a hand on it, you will remember the struggle and never do it again! Any hope of subduing it is false; the mere sight of it is overpowering. No one is fierce enough to rouse it. Who then is able to stand against me? Who has a claim against me that I must pay? Everything under heaven belongs to me. “I will not fail to speak of Leviathan’s limbs, its strength and its graceful form. Who can strip off its outer coat? Who can penetrate its double coat of armor? Who dares open the doors of its mouth, ringed about with fearsome teeth? Its back has rows of shields tightly sealed together; each is so close to the next that no air can pass between. They are joined fast to one another; they cling together and cannot be parted. Its snorting throws out flashes of light; its eyes are like the rays of dawn. Flames stream from its mouth; sparks of fire shoot out. Smoke pours from its nostrils as from a boiling pot over burning reeds. Its breath sets coals ablaze, and flames dart from its mouth. Strength resides in its neck; dismay goes before it. The folds of its flesh are tightly joined; they are firm and immovable. Its chest is hard as rock, hard as a lower millstone. When it rises up, the mighty are terrified; they retreat before its thrashing. The sword that reaches it has no effect, nor does the spear or the dart or the javelin. Iron it treats like straw and bronze like rotten wood. Arrows do not make it flee; Sling-stones are like chaff to it. A club seems to it but a piece of straw; it laughs at the rattling of the lance. Its undersides are jagged potsherds, leaving a trail in the mud like a threshing sledge. It makes the depths churn like a boiling caldron and stirs up the sea like a pot of ointment. It leaves a glistening wake behind it; one would think the deep had white hair. Nothing on earth is its equal—a creature without fear. It looks down on all that are haughty; it is king over all that are proud.” (Genesis 41:1-34).


Dinosaurs have been seen in Nurluc, France when people renamed their city because of a creature they killed that was bigger than an ox and had three horns coming out of its head.  The early Britons, from whom the modern Welsh are descended, provide us with our earliest surviving European accounts of dinosaurs, one of whom killed and devoured king Morvidus in 336 BC. We are told in the account translated by Geoffrey of Monmouth that the monster ‘devoured the body of Morvidus as a big fish swallows a little one.’ Geoffrey described the animal as a Belua.


Marco Polo mentioned dinosaurs when he lived in China for 17 years, around 1271 A.D. After he returned from Asia, he reported of families raising dragons, yoking them to royal chariots for parades and special occasions, and using dragon parts for medicinal purposes. The twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals, eleven of which are commonly observed animals (rat, horse, dog, ox, rabbit, tiger, snake, ram, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig.)  The 12th is the dragon. Why would the Chinese include the “mythological” dragon with these common living animals?  And we trust Marco for other history why not also dinosaurs or “Dragons”?


A Plesiosaur washed up on Moore’s Beach in Monterey Bay, California in 1925. The neck was described as being just over six meters long. A few scientists believed that it was an extremely rare type of beaked whale, while others were convinced that it was a variety of plesiosaur. After thoroughly examining the carcass, the renowned naturalist E. L. Wallace concluded that the creature could not be a whale and might be a plesiosaur that had been preserved and subsequently melted out of glacial ice.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers Book by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; The Speed of Light Articles by Barry Setterfield; The Inspired Evidence by Julie Von Vett & Brue Malone; The Genesis Conflict by Dr. Walter Veith; The DK Science Encyclopedia Edited by Susan Mckeever. Old Earth Why Not by James NienHuis.




Today there are key scientific evidences demonstrating that the universe, planet Earth, and humankind are relatively young. According to many creation science researchers, a study of the decreasing light speed and the red shift quantization are confirmations for a young universe. Examination of the planet Earth’s magnetic field, its Missipi River Delta, its ocean salinity, its Poynting-Robertson effect, and its radio-halos all confirm a relatively young Earth. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome indicates that human populations have a recent history.


There are some creation science researchers who believe that astrophysicist Barry Setterfield’s light-speed decay theory has not been confirmed scientifically and his theory does not stand up to scientific analysis.  However, this issue does not mean his theory is wrong and that it should never be considered as a likely explanation for a young universe. According to Barry Setterfield, the speed of light was significantly faster during the past, than its current 300,000 kilometers per second speed today. This light speed history means that distant star light reached the planet Earth faster and the history of the universe can be determined within the thousands of years and not millions or billions of years. The light-speed decay theory is partially supported by the proliferation of entropy increasing throughout the cosmos, according to the predictions derived from thermodynamic laws influencing energy and matter. Because light is a form of energy (similar to heat and sound), then it probably has been decreasing in speed since the beginning at different rates and in different areas in the universe. Additionally, there are four of five related atomic properties that dependent upon light-speed, which all demonstrated decreases in light speed.


The redshift quantization indicates the universe is probably thousands of years old. Based on creation science research, analysis of the galactic redshifts have demonstrated that they favor certain values resulting in concentric shells of galaxies around our own Milky-way a spacing of about 3 light years. This pattern shows up in the frame of reference of the Milky-way’s center and observations from Earth have to been corrected for by adjusting the Earth motion to observe it. Additionally, computer simulations demonstrate that we are located less than 100,000 light years from the center, and that if we were as little as little as two million light years from the center, we would not identify this pattern. Finally, scientific analysis of the galactic redshifts appears to support quantization effects when precise enough data is placed in the galacto-centric frame of reference. This effect is consistent with a galacto-centric universe with the Milky-way at the center and planet Earth near that center.  This observation is a significant challenge to the Big Bang naturalistic assumption that we are no in a special place in the universe. This theory appears to be completely consistent with a bounded universe with the Milky-way at its center, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys.


The planet Earth’s magnetic field indicates that the planet is thousands of years old. Its half-life is calculated to be 1,400 years, based on measurements taken from 1835 to 1965 estimates an age of less than 10,000 years. If we calculate backward 20,000 years, the joule heat generated would liquefy the planet Earth, according to Dr. Thomas Barnes. After his analysis of revisions for magnetic reversals, Dr. Russell Humphreys confirmed these results in 1994.


The Mississippi River Delta indicates that the planet Earth is young. Approximately 300 million cubic yards of sediment are deposited into the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River each year. Analysis of the volume and rate of accumulation and dividing the weight of the sediments deposited annually, the age of the delta appears to be about 4,000 years old, according to Dr. Henry M. Morris.


The salinity of the oceans is indicative of a young Earth.  The uranium, sodium, nickel, magnesium, silicon, potassium, copper, gold, molybdenum, and bicarbonate concentrations in the oceans are much less than would be expected if these elements and compounds were being added to the oceans at the present rate for thousands of millions of years. Nitrates and uranium do not break down or recycle like salt. Implies oceans are a few thousand years old, according to Dr. John Morris.


The Poynting-Robertson effect, referred to as the “Solar Janitor”, is indicative of a young universe.  Photons slow down the forward movement of objects in space. The solar drag force exerted upon micro-meteoroids causes the particles to spiral into the sun. The sun is sweeping space at the rate of about 100,000 tons/day. There is no known source of replenishment. Their current abundance speaks for a young universe, according to Stanley P. Wyatt and Fred L. Whipple.


Radio halos are indications of a young Earth. Primordial Polonium 218 has been found in mica and fluorite. Polonium 218 has a half-life of only three minutes. This is evidence of an instantaneous crystallization of the host granite concurrent with the formation of the polonium. This confirms an instantaneous creation thousands of years ago, according to Dr. Robert Gentry.


The dating of human ancestors is possible by measuring minor variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is genetic information passed from mother to daughter) and segments of the Y chromosome (genetic information passed from father to son). Geneticists stunned the scientific community in 1987 by sequencing mtDNA and announcing that all women in the world today are descended from one woman and that one common female ancestor lived about 200, 000 years ago. Less than a decade later, geneticists sequenced a portion of the Y chromosome and concluded that all men in the world today are descended from one common male ancestor sometime between 120,000 and 60,000 years ago. However, these mtDNA and Y chromosome calculations were all based upon the assumptions of slow mutation rates designed to fit the Darwinian paradigm. Today, new and improved molecular clocks show that the mtDNA and Y chromosome calculations confirm mutations rates are more frequent and scientific Eve (common ancestor for all women) has been recalculated to have existed approximately 6,000 years ago (4000 BC). Scientific Adam (common ancestor for all men) has been recalculated to have existed approximately 4,350 years ago (2350 BC), according to creation and secular science researchers.


Evidence for a Young world by Dr. Russell Humphreys. The King James Version; The New King James Version; The English Version of the Greek Septuagint; The New International Version; Creation Revealed in Six Days by Air Commodore P.J. Wiseman; The Revell Bible Dictionary; Rethinking Genesis by Duane Garrett; The Holy Bible; The Collapse of Evolution” by Scott M Huse; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Moreland & John Mark Reynolds; The New Answers Book 2 by Ken Ham; Creation and Time by Dr. Hugh Ross; GENESIS and the BIG BANG by Dr. Gerald L. Schroeder; The Science of God by DR. Gerald Schroeder; Starlight and time by Dr. Russell Humphreys.

Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson, “Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution;” Nature 325 pp. 31-36 (1 January 1987). Samples from 147 women representing five different geographic regions; estimated a mutation rate of 2-4×10-8 mutation/base-pair–year. Robert L. Dorit, Hiroshi Akashi, and Walter Gilbert, “Absence of Polymorphism at the ZFY Locus on the Human Y Chromosome;” Science 268 pp. 1183-1185 (26 May 1995). An evolutionary split at five million years between humans and chimpanzees/gorillas is assumed in order to estimate 1.35×10-9 mutation/base-pair–year. [If all of the theories of evolution are false, then this rate evidently has no foundation.] Thomas J. Parsons,, “A high observed substitution rate in the human mitochondrial DNA control region;” Nature Genetics 15, pp. 363-368 (April 1997). Neil Howell, Iwona Kubacka, and David A. Mackey, “How Rapidly Does the Human Mitochondrial Genome Evolve?” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59, pp. 501-509 (1996). Ann Gibbons, “Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock;” Science 279 5347, pp. 28-29 (2 January 1998). Parsons and Howell “warned that phylogenetic studies have ‘substantially underestimated the rate of mtDNA divergence’” [Nevertheless, all do their obligatory obeisance to some theory of evolution.] Amanda Spurdle and Trefor Jenkins, “The search for Y chromosome polymorphism is extended to negroids;” Human Molecular Genetics, 1, 3, pp. 169-170 (1992). Mark A. Jobling and Chris Tyler- Smith, “Fathers and Sons: the Y chromosome and human evolution;” Trends in Genetics 11, 11, pp. 449-456 (November 1995).





The Genesis creation gap theory says that the creation week’s First Day does not begin until Genesis 1:3 and a gap of time existed between verse 1 and verse 2 in Genesis. This theory’s many advocates speculate that life existed and was destroyed when the Earth became “waste and void” (1:2). The gap theory was invented by Thomas Chalmers as response to scientific research saying the planet Earth was old. Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), a notable Scottish theologian and first moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, was perhaps the man most responsible for the gap theory. The idea can be traced back to the rather obscure writings of the Dutchman Episcopius (1583-1643), and was first recorded from one of Chalmers’ lectures in 1814. Rev. William Buckland, a geologist, did much to popularize the idea. Modern supporters of the gap theory include: author G.H Pember and Rev Clarence Larkin developed the gap theory during the late 1800s and early 1900s. The following information highlights the gap theory’s explanation for the creation of the universe and the creation week.


The creation of the universe and planet Earth was during the dateless past and it described in Genesis 1:1. The original creation was not at the beginning of the First Day as described in Genesis 1:3-5. The six days’ work as described in Genesis 1:3-31 was the restoration of the original Earth, to its original condition before it was made ‘formless and void, ” and submerged in water and darkness. Peter speaks of it as the “World that then was, that being overflowed with water, perished.” 2-Peter 3:5-7. The manner of the “creation” of the pre-human Earth is not revealed in the Scriptures. They simply declare that in the beginning God created the universe. The original universe and planet Earth were decorated with primeval life forms under the rule of Lucifer who became Satan during his rebellion. The following creation week is simply a re-creation and renovation of the Earth’s surface in preparation for the creation of humankind.


The first creation day on Earth began when God said “Let there be light” (Genesis 1:3 NIV). The sun was already shining brightly, but God made the Earth’s thick new atmosphere allow diffuse light to penetrate to the surface. And so it was that the light was made separate from darkness. The first day of Earth’s creation was literally the first “day” as someone on Earth’s surface would experience it – a period of opaque light, and a period of darkness (Genesis 1:3-5 NIV).

We learn that God’s creative power is manifested by simply speaking. His first creative word called forth light in the midst of darkness. In John 1:1-2 we learn that the “Word” (Yeshua) was in the beginning, and that the “Word” was with God and was God. John further tells us that “through him [the Word] all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made” (John 1:3 NIV). God did not just make a physical universe: “God saw all that he had made, and it was very good” (Genesis 1:31 NIV). Whatever God makes is very good indeed, because the Word through which He created all things is the very essence of goodness, beauty, and light: “In him (Yeshua) was life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness” (John 1:4 NIV), now as it did at the very beginning of creation.


On the second day, God separated the waters. There was no liquid water, no oceans. All of the water was in the form of a vapor, a worldwide super-fog, extending a number of kilometers up from the very hot bare-rock earth’s surface. God’s “hovering over the waters” in verse 2 describes His being above that gaseous-water atmosphere, not a liquid ocean. God then caused most of the water to condense onto the cooling earth which simultaneously formed a whole-planet ocean and cleared the sky (Genesis 1:6-8 NIV). The expanse, called “sky,” is the atmosphere, or layer of air between the water-covered Earth and the clouds above.


On the third day, God formed the continents and oceans. The further cooling of the surface set in motion a process of natural contraction, uplifting and motion of the crust. The Earth changed from a smooth one-level molten “cue ball” to a planet with an irregular surface with ocean basins and landmass. With dry ground available, the first plants were made to grow in great abundance (Genesis 1:9-13). Today’s work was simply a reversal of the cataclysmic convulsions that submerged the Pre-human Earth, and by upheaval caused the Earth to emerge from its watery grave.


On the fourth day, God allowed the sun, moon, and stars to appear. Before this day, the sun, moon, and stars were invisible. God transformed the upper atmosphere from a translucent sky into a transparent sky.    The sun, moon, and stars were to “serve as signs to mark the seasons, months, and days.” The sun measured the day (sunset to sunset), the moon measured the month (new moon to new moon), and the stars measured the seasons (Genesis 1:14-19 NIV). The appearance of the sun and the moon on the Fourth day was not a new creation. They had existed in beginning (Genesis 1:1 NIV). The words translated “made” in the 16th verse is not the same word as is translated “created” in verse one, and does not imply a “creative” act. What is meant here is that the clouds broke away and permitted the sun and moon to be seen, and from that time they were appointed to measure the days, and years, and seasons as we have them today.


On the fifth day, God re-created flying creatures for the sky and marine animals for the ocean. This day’s work included the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. The life forms that were created on the “Fifth Day” were ancestors the same kinds that we have today. The fossil remains of huge marine animals and gigantic birds belong to the Pre-human Earth  when it became waste in Genesis 1:2.


On the sixth day, God re-created land animals and humankind. This day’s work did not include the great dinosaurs because these behemoths were created on the pre-human Earth. God reveals that each living creature on the land is created “according to their kind.” This refutes the notion that all species of animals evolved from a single, common, primeval organism. It supports the scientific evidence that living creatures have adapted over time to their environment, while there is no convincing evidence that one species of animal has evolved into another. God created humankind in His own image. God saw everything that He had made, and it was “good” (1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31). It is interesting to note that God declared all that he had made on the sixth day “very good” perhaps to stress the relative significance of this day in comparison to the prior days.


On the Seventh Day, God concluded His work on creation; and He RESTED, not because God was tired, but because the seventh day of the creation week was a type of the Sabbath. This appears clear from Exodus 20:11 and Exodus 31:17 because Moses wrote that “For in six days the Lord made heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the SEVENTH day; wherefore the Lord blessed the SABBATH day, and hallowed it.” According to the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Septuagint version of the bible, this passage says that God cease from working, which indicates that God was never tired, but that God only stopped working on the seventh day.


While the gap theory attempts to solve the problem between science and Scripture, it is decorated with many scientific and biblical problems. The gap theory accepts the antiquity of the Earth and life itself, thereby avoiding a direct confrontation with evolution. The gap theory has to be rejected in the light of the best evidence of science alone. There is no proof that the so-called prehistoric life spanned millions of years. Direct radiocarbon dating has been possible on fossils which show that life forms were only several thousand years old. The millions of years we hear about have been arrived at by the assumptions of layer dating. If a fossil is found in a certain layer of the sedimentary rocks, the age ascribed to that layer is given to the fossil. This method is totally erroneous because the very assumption that the layers were deposited gradually along with the prevalent life forms is wrong. Creation science researchers have demonstrated that the sedimentary layers of the Earth have been formed over a very short period of time during a mighty Earth event known as the Flood. The Flood was universal and it occurred approximately 4,500 years ago. Most ‘prehistoric life’ should be called ‘pre-flood life’. There is no need to accept the long ages proposed by gap theory dogma.

The gap theory does not appear to be supported by either Scripture or science because the bible does not describe Satan’s fall (Isaiah 14, Ezekiel 28, Jeremiah 23, Revelation 12) until after the creation week and the weight of scientific evidence reveals one global hydraulic catastrophe in Earth’s history (Global Flood described in Genesis 7). Furthermore, some biblical scholars believe there was no time gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.  This theory needs more biblical, scientific, and historic support.


Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003. Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998. Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992. Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990. Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000. The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851. The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982. The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010. Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999. Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002. The Genesis Account of Creation; Lee Warren, B.A., D.D.; 1997. Creation Revealed in Six Days; P.J. Wiseman; 1946. Dispensational Truth; Rev Clarence Larkin; 1920.