Christian Apologetics Study



Today there are key scientific evidences demonstrating that the universe, planet Earth, and humankind are relatively young. According to many creation science researchers, a study of the decreasing light speed and the red shift quantization are confirmations for a young universe. Examination of the planet Earth’s magnetic field, its Missipi River Delta, its ocean salinity, its Poynting-Robertson effect, and its radio-halos all confirm a relatively young Earth. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome indicates that human populations have a recent history.


There are some creation science researchers who believe that astrophysicist Barry Setterfield’s light-speed decay theory has not been confirmed scientifically and his theory does not stand up to scientific analysis.  However, this issue does not mean his theory is wrong and that it should never be considered as a likely explanation for a young universe. According to Barry Setterfield, the speed of light was significantly faster during the past, than its current 300,000 kilometers per second speed today. This light speed history means that distant star light reached the planet Earth faster and the history of the universe can be determined within the thousands of years and not millions or billions of years. The light-speed decay theory is partially supported by the proliferation of entropy increasing throughout the cosmos, according to the predictions derived from thermodynamic laws influencing energy and matter. Because light is a form of energy (similar to heat and sound), then it probably has been decreasing in speed since the beginning at different rates and in different areas in the universe. Additionally, there are four of five related atomic properties that dependent upon light-speed, which all demonstrated decreases in light speed.


The redshift quantization indicates the universe is probably thousands of years old. Based on creation science research, analysis of the galactic redshifts have demonstrated that they favor certain values resulting in concentric shells of galaxies around our own Milky-way a spacing of about 3 light years. This pattern shows up in the frame of reference of the Milky-way’s center and observations from Earth have to been corrected for by adjusting the Earth motion to observe it. Additionally, computer simulations demonstrate that we are located less than 100,000 light years from the center, and that if we were as little as little as two million light years from the center, we would not identify this pattern. Finally, scientific analysis of the galactic redshifts appears to support quantization effects when precise enough data is placed in the galacto-centric frame of reference. This effect is consistent with a galacto-centric universe with the Milky-way at the center and planet Earth near that center.  This observation is a significant challenge to the Big Bang naturalistic assumption that we are no in a special place in the universe. This theory appears to be completely consistent with a bounded universe with the Milky-way at its center, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys.


The planet Earth’s magnetic field indicates that the planet is thousands of years old. Its half-life is calculated to be 1,400 years, based on measurements taken from 1835 to 1965 estimates an age of less than 10,000 years. If we calculate backward 20,000 years, the joule heat generated would liquefy the planet Earth, according to Dr. Thomas Barnes. After his analysis of revisions for magnetic reversals, Dr. Russell Humphreys confirmed these results in 1994.


The Mississippi River Delta indicates that the planet Earth is young. Approximately 300 million cubic yards of sediment are deposited into the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River each year. Analysis of the volume and rate of accumulation and dividing the weight of the sediments deposited annually, the age of the delta appears to be about 4,000 years old, according to Dr. Henry M. Morris.


The salinity of the oceans is indicative of a young Earth.  The uranium, sodium, nickel, magnesium, silicon, potassium, copper, gold, molybdenum, and bicarbonate concentrations in the oceans are much less than would be expected if these elements and compounds were being added to the oceans at the present rate for thousands of millions of years. Nitrates and uranium do not break down or recycle like salt. Implies oceans are a few thousand years old, according to Dr. John Morris.


The Poynting-Robertson effect, referred to as the “Solar Janitor”, is indicative of a young universe.  Photons slow down the forward movement of objects in space. The solar drag force exerted upon micro-meteoroids causes the particles to spiral into the sun. The sun is sweeping space at the rate of about 100,000 tons/day. There is no known source of replenishment. Their current abundance speaks for a young universe, according to Stanley P. Wyatt and Fred L. Whipple.


Radio halos are indications of a young Earth. Primordial Polonium 218 has been found in mica and fluorite. Polonium 218 has a half-life of only three minutes. This is evidence of an instantaneous crystallization of the host granite concurrent with the formation of the polonium. This confirms an instantaneous creation thousands of years ago, according to Dr. Robert Gentry.


The dating of human ancestors is possible by measuring minor variations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is genetic information passed from mother to daughter) and segments of the Y chromosome (genetic information passed from father to son). Geneticists stunned the scientific community in 1987 by sequencing mtDNA and announcing that all women in the world today are descended from one woman and that one common female ancestor lived about 200, 000 years ago. Less than a decade later, geneticists sequenced a portion of the Y chromosome and concluded that all men in the world today are descended from one common male ancestor sometime between 120,000 and 60,000 years ago. However, these mtDNA and Y chromosome calculations were all based upon the assumptions of slow mutation rates designed to fit the Darwinian paradigm. Today, new and improved molecular clocks show that the mtDNA and Y chromosome calculations confirm mutations rates are more frequent and scientific Eve (common ancestor for all women) has been recalculated to have existed approximately 6,000 years ago (4000 BC). Scientific Adam (common ancestor for all men) has been recalculated to have existed approximately 4,350 years ago (2350 BC), according to creation and secular science researchers.


Evidence for a Young world by Dr. Russell Humphreys. The King James Version; The New King James Version; The English Version of the Greek Septuagint; The New International Version; Creation Revealed in Six Days by Air Commodore P.J. Wiseman; The Revell Bible Dictionary; Rethinking Genesis by Duane Garrett; The Holy Bible; The Collapse of Evolution” by Scott M Huse; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Moreland & John Mark Reynolds; The New Answers Book 2 by Ken Ham; Creation and Time by Dr. Hugh Ross; GENESIS and the BIG BANG by Dr. Gerald L. Schroeder; The Science of God by DR. Gerald Schroeder; Starlight and time by Dr. Russell Humphreys.

Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson, “Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution;” Nature 325 pp. 31-36 (1 January 1987). Samples from 147 women representing five different geographic regions; estimated a mutation rate of 2-4×10-8 mutation/base-pair–year. Robert L. Dorit, Hiroshi Akashi, and Walter Gilbert, “Absence of Polymorphism at the ZFY Locus on the Human Y Chromosome;” Science 268 pp. 1183-1185 (26 May 1995). An evolutionary split at five million years between humans and chimpanzees/gorillas is assumed in order to estimate 1.35×10-9 mutation/base-pair–year. [If all of the theories of evolution are false, then this rate evidently has no foundation.] Thomas J. Parsons,, “A high observed substitution rate in the human mitochondrial DNA control region;” Nature Genetics 15, pp. 363-368 (April 1997). Neil Howell, Iwona Kubacka, and David A. Mackey, “How Rapidly Does the Human Mitochondrial Genome Evolve?” Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59, pp. 501-509 (1996). Ann Gibbons, “Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock;” Science 279 5347, pp. 28-29 (2 January 1998). Parsons and Howell “w

arned that phylogenetic studies have ‘substantially underestimated the rate of mtDNA divergence’” [Nevertheless, all do their obligatory obeisance to some theory of evolution.] Amanda Spurdle and Trefor Jenkins, “The search for Y chromosome polymorphism is extended to negroids;” Human Molecular Genetics, 1, 3, pp. 169-170 (1992). Mark A. Jobling and Chris Tyler- Smith, “Fathers and Sons: the Y chromosome and human evolution;” Trends in Genetics 11, 11, pp. 449-456 (November 1995).




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