Christian Apologetics Study



The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. And the Lord God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die.” The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.” Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds in the sky and all the wild animals. But for Adam no suitable helper was found. So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh. Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man. The man said, “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called ‘woman,’ for she was taken out of man.” That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh. Adam and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame. (Genesis 2:15-25 NIV).

Today many people often wonder how all the different ethnic groups within various human populations could have originated from two human ancestors (Adam and Eve). This question is no different than asking how children with different color hair (blond, brunette, brown, and red hair) or skin color (dark brown, light brown and light skin color) can originate from the same parents who both have black hair or medium brown skin complexion. People carry genes to produce descendants with different color hair and eyes because humankind’s first parents, Adam and Eve, possessed all the genes to produce all the variety of ethnic populations worldwide.


Today, many people do not carry the genes to produce every variety or race of humans, but humankind’s first parents did possess the complete genetic makeup for all humanity. All varieties of humans carry genes for the same basic traits, but not all humans carry every possible variation of those genes. For example, a man may be carrying several variations of the gene for eye color (brown, green, and blue), but his wife may be carrying only one variation of the gene for eye color (brown). Thus, this married couple will have different abilities to affect the eye color of their offspring.

Some parents with black hair, for example, are capable of producing children with blond hair, but their blond children (because they inherit only recessive genes) will not have the ability to produce children with black hair unless they mate with someone else who has black hair. If the blond descendants only mate with other blondes then the entire line and population will only be blond even though the original ancestor was black-haired. In reality there is only one race, the human race, within which exists myriad variations and permutations.


Scientific Adam has been determined through the scientific analysis of the Y-chromosome. The Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-MRCA) is the name given to the common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living human males are descended from through the patriarchal linage (tracing back genetic history along the male lines of the family tree). According to Darwinists, the Y-MRCA lived between 120,000 and 60,000 years ago in Africa. However, creation science researchers, have determined that mutations rates are too frequent; therefore, Y-MRCA really lived between 4500 and 5000 years ago.

Scientific Eve is the name for Mitochondrial Eve and this refers to the matriarchal linage (tracing genetic history back only along the female lines of the family tree). Because all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) generally is passed from mother to offspring without recombination, all mtDNA in every living person is directly descended from females and differing only by the mutations that over generations have occurred in the germ cell mtDNA since the conception of the original Mitochondrial Eve. Darwinists believe that mtDNA lived around 200,000 years ago in Africa.  However, creation science researchers, have again determined that mutations rates are too frequent; therefore, mtDNA really lived between 6,000 and 7000 years ago.


Many paleoanthropologists believe that Y-MRCA and mtDNA had dark brown or medium brown skin complexion that transformed into all the shades of pigmentation within human population groups living today. The Y-chromosome history shows little variation because the Y-chromosome goes back to Noah. However, mtDNA history shows more genetic diversity because the mtDNA goes back to the wives of Ham, Shem, and Japheth.  This means that modern genetic studies confirm the history of the creation of humanity, the global flood, and the Tower of Babel.

CREATION SCIENCE SOURCES: Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003.Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998.Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992.Inspired Evidence; Bruce Malone;2011.Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990.Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000.The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851.The Genesis Conflict; Dr. Walter Veith; 2002.The New Answers Book1; Ken Ham; 2006.The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008.The New Answers Book3; Ken Ham; 2010.The New Answers Book4; Ken Ham; 2014.The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982.The Speed of Light Commentary; Barry Setterfield; 1998.The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010.Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999.Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002.


URCES: The author, Babu G. Ranganathan, is an experienced Christian writer. Mr. Ranganathan has his B.A. degree with concentrations in theology and biology. As a religion and science writer he has been recognized in the 24th edition of Marquis Who’s Who In The East. The author’s articles have been published in various publications including Russia’s Pravda and South Korea’s The Seoul Times. The author’s website may be accessed at: .




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