Christian Apologetics Study



“Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed. The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.  (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.) The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.” (Genesis 2:8-14 NIV).

The Garden of Eden was the original home of the humankind (Genesis 2:8-17). Eden is mentioned in other Old Testament Hebrew Scriptures as a place of extreme fertility ( Isaiah 51:3; Ezekiel 28:13, 31:9; Joel 2:3), and the name continues to connote an ideal setting. For many generations, researchers have been looking for the Garden of Eden. Many believe the Garden of Eden was located somewhere in the Middle East regions. Biblical scholars have identified places such as Iran, Iraq, Syria, Israel, and Turkey.  However, the Garden of Eden was not located anywhere in the Middle East. It was destroyed during the global flood cataclysm. The weight of scientific and biblical evidence reveals the real Garden of Eden was probably located somewhere in Tanzania’s Ngoro-Ngoro crater region.

God’s Word makes it clear that the Garden of Eden was located where there were four rivers coming from one head. The rivers are called the Tigris, Euphrates, Pison, and Gihon. Before the great flood, the Earth was 25 percent smaller in size and these rivers included portions of Africa where pre-flood Tanzania was located.  The Pison and Gihon rivers flowed around this region of Africa when all the post-flood continents were connected together.


The Tigris is the third river of Eden and portions of this river survived the worldwide flood of Noah’s generation.  It originates in the Taurus Mountains at Lake Hazar and flows 1,900 km southeast through Turkey and past Baghdad to unite with the Euphrates River at Al-Qurnah in southeastern Iraq; there it forms the Shatt al-Arab. With the Euphrates it defined the ancient region of Mesopotamia. Important for its irrigation capacity, it gave rise to sustained civilization. The ruins of many ancient cities lie on its banks, including those of Nineveh, Calah, Ashur, Ctesiphon, and Seleucia.  The geography of the Tigris River was different before the worldwide flood.


The Euphrates is the fourth river of Eden and portions of this river survived the worldwide flood of Noah’s generation. It is the largest river in Southwest Asia, it rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the Karasu and the Murat rivers in the high Armenian plateau, the Euphrates descends between major ranges of the Taurus Mountains to the Syrian plateau. It then flows through western and central Iraq to unite with the Tigris and continues, as Shatt al-Arab, to the Persian Gulf. In all, it is 2,800 km long. Its valley was heavily irrigated in ancient times, and many great cities, some of whose ruins remain, lined its banks. With the Tigris, it defines an area known historically as Mesopotamia. The geography of the Euphrates River was different before the worldwide flood.


The name of the first river of Eden is Pishon and it was completely destroyed by sedimentary layers during the worldwide flood. This river surrounded the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that land is good and there is bdellium and the onyx stone. Havilah is the biblical name for the sand-dominated region to the south covering what we call Arabia and portions of African. Before the great flood, this region was decorated with thick vegetation.  The Table of Nations (Genesis 10:7) lists Havilah as a son of Cush or Ethiopia, showing Havilah’s African location (Genesis 10:7 NKJV).  Before the great flood (Genesis 7) followed by the breakup of Pangaea (Genesis 10:25), Havilah was probably located somewhere in Africa. A few biblical scholars believe that Havilah was located in the region of Tanzania’s Ngoro Ngoro Valley.  The earliest human remains are found in the regions of Kenya and Tanzania. Genetic studies on human populations show that Mitochondrial Eve originated in Africa. It appears that pre-flood human populations occupied the regions of Central East Africa before spreading out all over Pangaea.

After the great-flood, post-flood populations occupied the areas of Mesopotamian and Central East Africa before migrating to the north, south, east, and west regions worldwide. Post-flood, human populations began to take on the appearance of their environment because of natural selection and genetic mutations, which is simply adaption to their climatic locations. However, many post-flood African populations probably retained most of the physical appearance of their pre-flood ancestors. Pre-flood human populations probably had reddish-brown or a medium-brown skin color because the name Adam is associated with the color red and the soil in portions of Tanzania has a reddish brown color.


The Gihon is the second river of Eden and it was completely destroyed by sedimentary layers during the worldwide flood.  The Gihon is described as “encircling the entire land of Cush”, a name associated with Ethiopia and portions of Africa. This is one of the reasons why some Ethiopians have long identified the Gihon with the Abay River, which encircles the former kingdom of Gojjam. From a current geographic standpoint this would seem impossible, since two of the other rivers said to issue out of Eden, the Tigris and the Euphrates, are in Mesopotamia. However, when we consider the fact that the Earth has expanded in physical size causing the breakup of Pangaea, we realize that the Earth’s geography has changed since the Genesis creation account. The Gihon River probably encircled parts of present day Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania when these regions were part of Pangea.


Today Tanzania is mostly on the African mainland but also includes the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia in the Indian Ocean. Its population is over 40,000,000. There are more than 120 identifiable ethnic groups; the largest, the Sukuma, are about one-tenth of the population. Although most of Tanzania consists of plains and plateaus, it has some spectacular relief features, including Kilimanjaro and Ol Doinyo Lengai, an active volcano. All or portions of Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika, Victoria, and Rukwa lie within Tanzania, as do the headwaters of the Nile, Congo, and Zambezi rivers. Serengeti National Park is the most famous of its extensive game reserves. Important mineral deposits include gold, diamonds, gemstones, coal, and natural gas.


Olduvai Gorge is found in Tanzania and it is one of the most important paleo-anthropological sites in the world and has been instrumental in furthering the understanding of early human origins. This site was first occupied by pre-flood populations and later reoccupied by post-flood human populations commonly referred to as Homo-Erectus. The first pre-flood human populations are believed to have occupied the site shortly after creation (Genesis 1 and 2), according to a few creation science researchers. Olduvai Gorge is a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches through eastern Africa. It is located in the eastern Serengeti Plains in Arusha Region of Tanzania and it is about 48 km long. It is located 45 km from the Laetoli archaeological site.

This site is significant in showing increased developmental and social complexities in early human populations. Evidence of this is shown in the production and use of stone tools, which indicates the advance cognitive capacities. Evidence also indicates the practices of hunting. Furthermore, the collection of tools and animal remains in a central area is evidence of complex social interaction and communal activity.


The Ngorongoro Crater is the largest intact caldera in the world. It is located 31.5 kilometers from the Olduvia Gorge site. This crater was probably where the Garden of Eden was located, which is the first home of humankind. Today it supports a variety of habitats within the crater walls. Ngorongoro Crater is one of the few places you can see large animals and it supports a strong birdlife. It also has one of the largest Lion populations because of the permanent availability of food within the Ngorongoro Crater. The Ngorongoro Crater rim provides some breathtaking views. The first human ancestor of all humanity, Adam and Eve,  probably walked on the pre-flood ground in the Ngorongoro Crater.


The biblical account of the creation of human beings occurs twice: in Genesis 1:26-27 and in Genesis 2:18-24. Genesis chapter one reveals a general overview of creation, while Genesis chapter two reveals the details about human origins on Day Six. In the first account, the Hebrew common noun for Adam is used as a generic term for all humanity, regardless of gender. In the second account, Adam is created from the dust of the Earth, whereas Eve is created from Adam’s rib and given to him by God to be his wife.

While creation science researchers don’t know much about Adam and Eve’s physical appearance, the weight of biblical and scientific evidence suggest that they were of medium height and either of medium brown or reddish-brown skin complexion.  Adam and Eve had one color, which is melanin. In humans, melanin help protect the skin against the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. The amount in the skin depends on both genetic and environmental factors.

After the great flood, human populations migrating away from Turkey first went down into portions of North, Central, and East Africa before migrating north east to Mesopotamia to build the Tower of Babylon. When human populations began migrating from Africa and Mesopotamia, they began to take on the physical appearance of their environment because of natural, social selection, and genetic mutations. People with dark-brown and medium-brown skin color occupied areas on Earth where there was plenty of sunlight and warm temperatures. Populations with light color skin complexion occupied areas on Earth where there was little sunshine and cold temperatures.


The Garden of Eden’s location is found in Genesis 2:10-14, “A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.” The exact location of the Pishon and Gihon Rivers are unknown, but the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are well known. If the Tigris and Euphrates mentioned are the same rivers by those names today, that would put portions of the Garden of Eden somewhere in the Middle East, likely in Iraq and Iran, and other portions of the Garden of Eden in Africa. However, the Flood of Noah’s day changed the course of the rivers. The Deluge completely changed the topography of the earth. Because of this catastrophic hydraulic event, the original locations for the Pishon, Gihon, Tigris and Euphrates rivers are uncertain.
The Garden of Eden was a gigantic region that was located somewhere in parts of Africa and the Middle East when all the continents were connected together for 10 generations before the worldwide flood. Africa was part of Pangaea before the global flood. The Pison and Gihon rivers encircled portions of Ethiopia and Tanzania before they were destroyed by the worldwide deluge. During the time of Peleg, Pangaea separated in the major continent we observe today. There are a maximum of six continents – Africa, Antarctica, Eurasia, Australia, North America, and South America. Many geographers and scientists now refer to six continents, where Europe and Asia are combined because they are part of one solid landmass.
The expanding Earth theory, the division of Pangaea, the human remains in Olduvai Gorge site, and human genetic research reveals that the possible location for the Garden of Eden was in Tanzania Africa. Some of the most ancient human remains are found in the area of Tanazania, Ethiopia, and Kenya. For a few researchers, the Bible and science appears to confirm the location of the Garden of Eden in Africa, but we must understand their information is primarily based on hypothesis, theory, and conjecture, and not purely on observa

tional science. People have searched for the Garden of Eden for centuries to no avail. There are various spots claimed as the original location of Eden, but no one can be sure.According to many creation scientists, the Garden of Eden was completely destroyed during the global flood and its location became lost to the post-flood generations of humankind. Only two of the pre-flood rivers survived the great flood, which are the Tigris and Euphrates.


The Garden of Eden DVD; Stan Deyo; 2014;  The Cosmic Conspiracy; Stan Deyo; 2010; Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003.Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998.Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992.Inspired Evidence; Bruce Malone;2011.Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990.Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000.The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851.The Genesis Conflict; Dr. Walter Veith; 2002.The New Answers Book1; Ken Ham; 2006.The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008.The New Answers Book3; Ken Ham; 2010.The New Answers Book4; Ken Ham; 2014.The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982.The Speed of Light Commentary; Barry Setterfield; 1998.The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010.Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999.Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002; Halley’s Bible Handbook; Henry H, Halley; 1965.



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