Christian Apologetics Study



Today, many within the secular scientific community have largely dismissed the Genesis flood as Hebrew mythology or a local flood event because they believe that there is no hard evidence for a global flood during Earth’s history. However, scientific investigations in crustal physics and plate tectonics have demonstrated to researchers that a more spherical planet Earth with less high mountains could have been flooded, with the ensuing volcanic, hydraulic, and geo-physical activities altering the planet Earth’s surface, according to many global flood theorists. These scientific explanations have annihilated many Darwinian arguments against the global flood theory, but the idea of “local flood” has remained because Darwinists, evolutionists, atheists, agnostics, and liberal critics are against any evidence that supports the existence of an omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent God that judges sinful humanity. Therefore, bible believing creation scientists who embrace the global flood theory argue that a cataclysmic global flood destroyed primeval humanity and land animals on the planet Earth, except for the people and animals occupying a wooden vessel about 4,500 years ago, according to their study of the biblical record, creation science theories, geologic data, and Earth’s mysteries.


The Holy Scriptures teach that the flood was a global hydraulic catastrophe because of the depth and duration of the great flood. The flood waters covered the mountains to a depth of at least the draft of Noah’s Ark (Genesis 7:19-20). Today’s mountains in the Ararat region include Mount Ararat which rises to 17,000 feet in elevation. The flood lasted for a year, peaking 150 days after it started (Genesis 7:11, 8:3-4), then it began to abate. A year-long mountain-covering flood is not a local flood.

The biblical flood was global because of the physical causes for the worldwide deluge. The Bible explains that the breaking open of “all the fountains of the great deep” and the “windows of heaven” (Genesis 7:11) were the primary causes. The “deep” is the ocean; thus the “great deep” could hardly be the cause of a limited local flood. The “windows” seem to refer to the “waters above the (atmospheric) firmament” (Genesis 1:7). These were global causes, producing a global effect.

The biblical flood was worldwide because of the need for Noah to build an Ark. Noah was given many years of warning, long enough to walk anywhere on Earth. The animals also would have lived globally and so could have migrated anywhere. There was no need for an Ark if the great flood was local. The Ark’s size, big enough to carry two (or seven for some) of each land dwelling, air-breathing animal, testifies for a global flood. If Noah used 21 inches for his cubit, then the Ark was 525 feet in length, 52.5 feet height, and 87.5 feet in width.  Therefore, building such a huge ship for a local flood for which there was ample warning would be ludicrous.

The biblical flood was a global event because it involves the destruction of all humanity living outside the Ark of Noah.  The flood’s primary purpose was to destroy sinful mankind. While the Earth’s pre-flood population is not given, reasonable assumptions based on Biblical data for average family size, life spans, and age of parent at time of first-born yield a population far in excess of the maximum Mesopotamian population. The Earth was “filled with violence” (Genesis 6:11–13), and while this may have included animal violence, it certainly included human violence. An Earth filled with violence would necessitate an Earth filled with a population of roughly 10 billion people. A local flood could not destroy so vast a population of humanity. Not only were violent inhabitants under condemnation, the Earth itself was to be destroyed (Genesis 6:13). The word for “Earth” was the same word as used in the creation account (Genesis 1:1). Surely it means the planet, not just a local area.

God’s promise Noah to never flood the entire world again supports the global flood theory. At the end of the flood, God promised that there would never again be such a flood (Genesis 9:15). However, Earth’s history shows that there have been many floods, even regional floods, especially in Mesopotamia, since Noah’s day. If this was merely a local flood, then God broke His promise, and the rainbow covenant means nothing.

Messiah Yeshua’s testimony supports the global flood theory. Messiah compared the days immediately prior to His second coming to the days prior to the great flood of Noah’s days. He reminded us that “the flood came and destroyed them all” (Luke 17:27). The coming judgment will be similarly extensive. If the flood in Noah’s day was local, people living outside the area survived, even though they, too, were sinners. This gives great hope to end-time sinners. Will they be able to escape the coming fiery judgment on sin?

The Testimony of Peter supports the global flood theory. Peter wrote of the coming judgment of the entire heavens and earth (II Peter 3:3–13). He based his argument on the historical facts that the creation was of the entire earth and that the Flood overflowed the entire earth, causing it to perish. If the Flood was only local, does this imply that only a portion of the earth will “melt with fervent heat”? Furthermore, the entire creation will be fully renewed, replaced by “a new heavens and a new earth”. The local flood idea produces theological nonsense.


Global flood scientific theories support a global hydraulic catastrophic event (global flood) about 4,500 years ago. There are many worldwide traditions derived from native populations of a global flood, according to many cultural anthropologists. Early civilization appears to have originated in the region of Ararat and Babylon, according to current archaeological evidence. The genealogical records of many European kings can be traced back to Noah’s son Japheth. Population growth statistics analysis confirms that there appears to have been zero population during the time of the flood’s conclusion. This indicates the global demise of humans by a great flood.

Human paleontological evidence exists even in the earliest geologic ‘ages’ where human footprints have been found in Cambrian, Carboniferous, and Cretaceous rocks. When rock layers were laid down by a global flood, human remains and artifacts would have been preserved in these rock layers. When human remains and artifacts are discovered by evolutionary scientists working in these rock layers, the data is classified as an anomaly because it discredits their belief in Darwinism. The most ancient human artifacts date to the post-flood era. This indicates that most of the pre-flood hardware was buried beyond reach by a huge geophysical and massive hydraulic catastrophe.

Calculations by creation researchers have demonstrated that there is nearly the same amount of organic material present around the globe as there would have been if all the fossils were still alive. This indicates the termination of many life forms in a single global event. Paleontological evidence indicates that the early Planet Earth had a warm and humid climate. This is consistent with the destruction of the old atmosphere by the processes of geophysical and Hydraulic activities as described in the Genesis record. The ice age period began rapidly because this glacial era required a cataclysmic hydraulic and geophysical episode, such as a global flood to cause so rapid climatic transformation.

Evidence for the global flood is found in many geological formations such as rifts, folds, faults, thrusts, and others. These geological formations were created during a cataclysmic global event. Creation science researchers have identified that the world’s folded beds of sediment have no compression breakages, indicating that they were contorted while they were still liquid. For this activity to happen on a global scale and on sediment thousands of meters thick, it would have required a catastrophic global hydraulic event.

Rocks of different geologic ‘ages’ have similar physical features indicating that they could have been created by a single worldwide event, such as a global hydraulic event. There is an absence of physical evidence that indicates a time change between rocks of ‘successive ages’. Sedimentary rock layers worldwide appear to have been laid down very quickly, as by a global hydraulic event. Globally, there is an almost complete absence of any evidence of animal and plant root activity within the tiny layers of sediment. Slowly deposited layers should show this activity, hydraulic deposits wouldn’t. All types of rocks such as limestone, shale, granite, and others occur in all geologic ‘ages’. This indicates a common formation on a global scale – the situation that would have been created by the mixing of sediment in a global hydraulic event. Many geological processes have a recent geological date. If the long-age evolutionary time scale is ignored, these processes would have occurred in the very recent past and as a result of the hydraulic cataclysm. Recent volcanic rocks are distributed widely.

The uplift and movement of mountain ranges were recent, according to creation science chronology. If the long-age evolutionary time scale is understood to be more recent, these processes would have occurred in the very recent past and as a result of the hydraulic cataclysm. There is a lack of correlation between radiometric ‘ages’ and assumed paleontological ‘ages’. A global hydraulic event could easily create an illusion of geologic ‘ages’. The consequent conflict between dating methods confirms the illusion.

Fossil ‘graveyards’ are found worldwide, and in rocks of all ‘ages’. Only a catastrophic global hydraulic event could achieve this. The burial of fossil deposits worldwide had to have occurred in a catastrophic event. Only massive hydraulic event could bury in such a fashion. Marine fossils can be found on the crests of mountains. Apart from mountain uplifting, this can also be explained as the marine animals being washed there and then buried. A global hydraulic event could do this. There is a worldwide distribution of most of the fossil types, indicating transportation on a global scale by a global hydraulic event. Fossils from different ‘ages’ are often found mixed. This indicates a huge mixing of animal bones that is not consistent with a local flood. Worldwide, fossils from different ‘ages’ are often found in the wrong order. This indicates a global mixing of fossils as a consequence of a global hydraulic event. Supposed evolutionary fossil sequences often parallel the ecological zones occurring today. If a global hydraulic event mixed organisms from different areas, it would create the illusion of a fossil sequence over time.

Dinosaurs and many other prehistoric creatures died out suddenly. A catastrophe such as a global hydraulic event could have produced this result. Polystrate fossils, which are vertical fossil tree trunks, are found worldwide indicating turbulent or rapid deposition. A global hydraulic event would be required to do this worldwide. Polystrate fossils also form when water-logged timber sinks in a large body of water. A year of global hydraulic events could produce worldwide polystrate fossils formed in this way. Animal tracks and other ephemeral markings have been preserved throughout the geological column. Rapid covering of these markings is required for this preservation worldwide and by a global hydraulic event.

Meteorites are basically absent from the geologic column. With the large number of meteorites hitting the Planet Earth each year, they should be very plentiful throughout the sedimentary rocks – unless much of the world’s sedimentary rocks were laid down in one year. Sedimentary rocks contain fossil ripple-marks and raindrop imprints, but no hail imprints. A global hydraulic event, not caused by storms, would not leave hail imprint marks. Furthermore, some desert areas show evidence of ‘recent’ water bodies. Water from a recent global hydraulic event would remain in large pools for some time before evaporating.

There is evidence of a recent drastic rise in sea level. A global hydraulic event could easily have created this feature. Raised shorelines are found worldwide indicating a time when the world had a different sea level and more land mass. A consistent interpretation of this is that a global hydraulic event altered the levels of the oceans and seas. Mountain-high water level marks found throughout the world are consistent with the recession of a global hydraulic event. River terraces are found worldwide. There is a universal occurrence of rivers in valleys too large for the present stream. Slow erosion over millions of years could not have created these valleys as the mountains would have eroded, keeping pace with the valley erosion. The drainage of global flood waters from the land surface could easily create such wide valleys in a short period of time.

Only modern sediments show any evidence of surface drainage systems. If the majority of the world’s sedimentary rocks were laid down by a global flood there would not be any sign of drainage erosion except for the top layers eroded during the recession of the flood waters off the land. Hydrologic evidence points to the rapid deposition of sedimentary rock layers. Therefore, the thousands of meters of sediment must have been deposited by a catastrophic global flood. Hydrologic evidence points to the world’s sedimentary rocks being deposited in one continuous episode. All the layers could have been laid down by a single event, such as a global flood.

Finally, hydrologic experiments show that flowing sediment automatically settles out in distinct layers. Therefore, sedimentary rock layers can be just as easily explained as flood debris, as slow deposition. There is a worldwide occurrence of deep alluvial deposits and sedimentary rocks consistent with a huge global flood. There is a near-random deposition of formational sequences. Nowhere in the world is it possible to see the complete geologic column as a single structure. It is always found in bits and pieces, and mostly with pieces missing. Globally, a worldwide flood could create the illusion of a geologic column. The oldest organisms still alive on Planet Earth today, the Californian Redwoods, Sequoias and Bristlecone Pines, are roughly 4,500 years old. Nothing is older than the date of Noah’s flood, according to many global flood theorists.


The geologic data supports a global flood event around 4,500 years ago.  The geologic column does not represent the slow evolution of life over many ages, as the evolution model alleges, but rather the rapid destruction and burial of life in one age, in accordance with the creation model. The Earth’s crust is almost completely covered with stratified rock, laid down by volcanic or aquatic action. This is exactly what one would expect from a universal flood that covered the entire Earth. Instead of assuming that the geologic column was laid down over long periods of time, Creation scientists argue it was deposited rapidly and catastrophically. Instead of saying that the fossil record sequences demonstrate evolution, flood geologists affirm it demonstrates the burial of life in distinct ecological zones. The fossil record different life forms in different places, not unlike what we observe today.

The Paleozoic Era show the plant and animal life forms captured in the sedimentary layers when the global flood waters were rising rapidly during the first 50 days of the great flood. The Paleozoic Era was a time of great change on Earth. This era commenced with the breakup of Earth’s supercontinent called Pangaea. This era comprised the Precambrian (Bacteria, Algae, and Jellyfish), Cambrian (Invertebrate animals, Brachiopods, Trilobites), Ordovician (Bony Fishes), Silurian (land animals), Devonian (seed plants cartilage fish), Mississippian (crinoids), Pennsylvanians (Insects), and Permian (reptiles).

The Mesozoic Era shows the plant and animal life forms captured in the sedimentary layers when the global flood waters continued rising worldwide. The Mesozoic Era lasted for another 50 days, and is divided into three periods, the Triassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous. All pre-flood land dwelling dinosaurs drowned during this period.  And elements of the Cenozoic era show plant and animals captured in sedimentary layers when the global flood waters completely covered the entire Earth for another 50 days. The Cenozoic Era is generally divided into three periods: the Paleogene, the Neogene, and the Quaternary. However, the era has been traditionally divided into the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Paleogene and Neogene eras lasted for another 50 days, while the Quaternary era begins the post-flood period around 4,500 years ago.


When we recognize that Noah’s Flood was the most devastating event in the planet Earth’s history that involved crustal breakup, violent eruptions, and entire submersion of all land masses under water with the devastation and entombment of land animals and human life, we begin to understand that Noah’s Flood offers the key to understanding the planet Earth’s primeval past because the global flood event explains seven mysteries about planet Earth’s past and present. The Genesis flood explains the distribution of the planet Earth’s continents, its topography, its deserts, its forests, and its cold regions. The Genesis flood explains why there are stratified rock layers, canyons, river systems, and petrified rock. The Genesis explains why there are prehistoric life forms preserved in fossils. The Genesis flood explains where the supply of coal originated. The Genesis flood explains the causation of Ice ages in planet Earth’s history. The Genesis Flood explains the origins of human and animal distribution. Finally, the Genesis Flood explains the origination of civilizations, cultures, races and languages.


The Holy Scripture supports the global flood theory for several reasons. First, there was a need for the ark to save a remnant of humanity and animal life. If the flood were local, then all of the effort to build the ark would have been unnecessary. Noah could have just traveled to another region instead of building an ark. Second, pre-flood humanity lived on a single super-continent sometimes called Pangaea; therefore, humankind was distributed worldwide before the flood. Cain settled in the land of Nod, which could have been thousands of kilometers away from the Middle East region. Third, the great flood forecast the coming judgments describe in biblical passages of 2-Peter 3:8, Isaiah 24,  Daniel chapters 9, 10, 11, and 12, and Revelation chapters 6 to 19, 20, and 21.  The comparison made between the historical flood judgment and the coming judgments, which states that as God once destroyed the world by a flood he will likewise do

it by fire.  Fourth, if the flood were local it would mean that God lied to Noah when He promised to never send another destructive flood because there have of course been many local destructive floods since caused by tsunamis, hurricanes, and rain water. Finally, many flood traditions found in the history of every ancient civilization and culture describe a global flood where everyone died and only a few people with animals survived in an ocean vessel.


Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics; Duane T Gish, Ph.D., 1993. Creation; Dr. Grant Jeffrey; 2003. In The Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood; Dr. Walter Brown; 2008. Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Dr. Grant Jeffrey; 2002. Panorama of Creation; Carl E. Baugh, Ph.D.; 1992. The Collapse of Evolution; Scott M. Huse; 1995. The Great Dinosaur Mystery: Ken Ham; 2009. The Lie Evolution; Ken Ham; 2009.The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008. The Genesis Flood; Dr. John C. Whitcomb and Dr. Henry Morris; 2011. Unmasking Evolution; Laurence D Smart; 1995. Why Do Men Believe Evolution Against All Odds; Carl E. Baugh, Ph.D.; 1999.



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