Christian Apologetics Study



“Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made.” (Genesis 2:1-3).

On the Seventh Day, God concluded His work on creation; and He RESTED, not because God was tired, but because the seventh day of the creation week was a type of the Sabbath. This appears to reflect Exodus 20:11 when Moses wrote that “For in six days the Lord made Heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the SEVENTH day; wherefore the Lord blessed the SABBATH day, and hallowed it.” According to the paleo-Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Greek Septuagint version of the Holy Bible, this passage says that God CEASE from working (Genesis 2:1-2 NKJV and LXX), which indicates that God was never tired, but that God only stopped working on the seventh day. In other words, this day reveals that God is establishing a pattern of one day in the seven day week for humankind to rest, to reflect, to worship, and to enjoy life. The keeping of this day will eventually be a distinguishing trait of God’s chosen people (Exodus 20:8-11).


The seventh day shows the significance of the number seven. The first use of the number 7 in the Bible relates to the creation week in Genesis 1 and 2. God spends six days creating the heavens and the earth, and then rests on the seventh day. This is our template for the seven day week, observed around the world to this day. The seventh day was to be “set apart” for Israel and the Sabbath was a holy day of rest (Deuteronomy 5:12 NKJV). Thus, right at the start of the Bible, the number 7 is identified with something being “finished” or “complete.” From then on, that association continues, as 7 is often found in contexts involving completeness or divine perfection. So we see the command for animals to be at least seven days old before being used for sacrifice (Exodus 22:30), the command for leprous Naaman to bathe in the Jordan River seven times to effect complete cleansing (2 Kings 5:10), and the command for Joshua to march around Jericho for seven days (and on the seventh day to make seven circuits) and for seven priests blow seven trumpets outside the city walls (Joshua 6:3–4). In these instances, 7 signifies a completion of some kind: a divine mandate is fulfilled.


The seven day appears to harmonize with the second law of thermodynamics which states that, in all expenditures of energy, some is irretrievably lost. It is not destroyed, but becomes unavailable for future use. Another way of stating it is that the randomness of the universe is always increasing. This can be interpreted to mean that the universe is gradually running down, becoming more and more disorderly and random. Hence, the universe was originally set in order, but has been in a state of gradual decay since then. This contrasts with Darwinism which says that the process of forming new kinds of living things continued on for millions and billions of years. Logically it should still be going on today, if evolutionism is true. But, today there is no scientific evidence for the evolution of new biological life forms.

When God stop working on the Seven Day, then entropy began its flight around the universe. Entropy is a measure of a system’s energy that is unavailable for work, or of the degree of a system’s disorder. In other nontechnical words, entropy is regarded as a measure of the chaos or randomness of a system. While entropy and thermodynamics were held in check during the creation week, the real process of “running down” would have begun sometime after the occurrence of sin recorded in Genesis chapter three. Before sin, all would have been sustained by God’s power. Nevertheless, there has been no new building up or creating since the six days ended. The point is that the Bible record of creation and the fall of humanity perfectly concur with creation science, while Darwinism does not.


The seventh creation day strongly affirms the idea of God’s “rest” being a cessation of work, not a reinvigoration after work. The narrative tells us which things God created in each of the first six days. His power is displayed through the creation of light, mountains, seas, the sun, moon and stars, plant and animal life, and, finally, humanity. There are many parallels between the first three days of creation and the second three days. However, the seventh day is a sharp contrast. Instead of more creating, there is SHABAT. Instead of God “doing” more, He “ceased” from doing. God did not merely “rest” on the seventh day; He “stopped creating.” It was a purposeful stop. Everything He desired to create had been made. He looked at His creat

ion, declared it “very good” (Genesis 1:31 NKJV), and ceased from His activity. In the Jewish tradition, the concept of SHABAT has been carried over as the “Sabbath.” The Law of Moses taught there was to be no work at all on the seventh day (Saturday). Because God ceased from work that day, the Israelites were to cease from their work on the Sabbath. Thus, the days of creation are the basis of our universal observance of a seven day week.


Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003. Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998. Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992. Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990. Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000. The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851. The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982. The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010. Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999. Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002. The Genesis Account of Creation; Lee Warren, B.A., D.D.; 1997. Creation Revealed in Six Days; P.J. Wiseman; 1946.Quantum Faith; Annette Capps; 2007.




“Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind”; and it was so. And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all[a] the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. Also, to every beast of the earth, to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; and it was so. Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day.” (Genesis1:24-31).

On the sixth day, God filled the Earth’s landmass with animals, and humankind. This day’s work included the creation of land dwelling insects, reptiles, mammals, flightless birds, along with sauropod and theropod dinosaurs. God created many other living systems during the Sixth Day, but Moses only mentions a few creatures and humankind. The global flood and post-flood climatic transformations caused massive extinctions that decimated many land animal kinds created on the sixth day. Many pre-flood animal kinds are only found within the fossil record. The post-flood Earth was replenished with land animals that survived aboard Noah’s Ark. Many land animals aboard Noah’s Ark died out shortly after the great flood. The animals living today had superior capacity to adapt to changing environments. (Genesis 1:24-31 NKJV).


During this period, God made the theropod and sauropod dinosaurs. Theropod dinosaurs included Tyrannosaurs, Allosauruses, and Velociraptors. Tyrannosaurs became predatory dinosaurs during the pre-flood era. Their sharp teeth were originally designed to feed on a plethora of tough pre-flood plants. They were large, high skulls, powerful jaws and legs, and large, sharp teeth shaped for biting through flesh and bone. Tyrannosaurs walked with the body horizontal and the long tail held off the ground as a counterweight. In that posture, large adults, weighing more than six tons, would have been more than 12 meters long. In some forms the hands had only two digits.
Allosaurus were large carnivorous dinosaur of a group similar to the Tyrannosaurs. They are found as fossils primarily in post-flood rocks of North America. They were originally designed to feed on plants. They weighed around 1,800 kilograms and grew to 11 meters long. Allosaurus walked on its two hind limbs and probably used the much smaller forelimbs for grasping. Equipped with powerful, flexible jaws,Allosaurs likely preyed on medium-sized dinosaurs; they were hunters and scavengers that hunted in groups. Velociraptors were genus of clawed theropod dinosaurs. They flourished in central and eastern Asia during the early post-flood era. They were related to the North American genus, Deinonychus. Both genera had a sickle-shaped claw on each foot and ossified tendon reinforcements in the tail that enabled them to keep their balance while striking and slashing at prey. They were swift moving and agile predators that attacked small herbivores. They grew up to 2 meters long and weighed between 45 and 50 kilograms.

When God made the sauropod dinosaurs, they included the Brontosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Diplotocus, and Apatosaurus dinosaurs. All species had a small head, extremely long neck, massive body, thick, pillarlike legs, and a very long, tapering, whiplike tail. With their weak, sparse teeth, they cropped vegetation from even the tallest trees, apparently depending on swallowed stones or bacteria in the gut to digest plant matter. The animals ranged from 15 meters to 30-meters in length. They weighed between 35 and 70 tons. These gigantic beasts are mentioned in the Book of Job chapter 40. They are called Behemoths.

God reveals that each living creature on the land is created “according to their kind.” This refutes the notion that all species of animals evolved from a single, common, primeval organism. It supports the scientific evidence that living creatures have adapted over time to their environment, while there is no convincing evidence that one species of animal has evolved into another. God created humankind in His own image. God saw everything that He had made, and it was “good” (1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31). It is interesting to note that God declared all that he had made on the sixth day “very good” perhaps to stress the relative significance of this day in comparison to the prior days.


Before God creates humankind, the Creator takes counsel with Himself (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit), and “God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, in our likeness’” (Genesis 1:26). These words are an early revelation of the Divine Trinity and they are part of the foundation for such, as God reveals an “us” within the Godhead. God makes humankind, and humankind is made in the image of God (men and women are made in God’s Triune image) and we are special above all other life forms. To emphasize this fact, God places humanity in authority over the Earth and over all the other life forms. God blesses humankind and commands them to reproduce, fill the Earth and subdue it. God announces that humankind and all other land animals are to eat plants alone.


Unlike the animals, humankind is created in the image or likeness of God. This is what makes human beings superior to animals. This concept is both challenging and revelational. Other Scriptures confirm that man is in the image of God: James 3:9-10 says men should not be cursed because they are made in the likeness of God. 1 Corinthians 11:7 says man is the image and glory of God. Psalms 8:4-8 says God placed man over all creation, including all animals (Hebrews 2:6-8). These verses show that Genesis chapter one and two are not to be taken as myth. What it says about the nature of man is intended to be taken as historical truth, and is so treated throughout the Bible. The “image of God” does not seem likely to refer to man’s physical nature, since God is spirit (John 4:24), and a spirit does not have flesh and blood (Luke 24:39 NKJV).

Humankind is similar to God, but on a significantly inferior level, and unlike animals in the following six ways. First, men and women have rational intelligence. We have the capability to reason, invent, and communicate verbally and symbolically in many ways, which are far superior to all animal kinds. This ability allows us to communicate with God and understand God’s will for our lives. Second, men and women have will and power to choose. We are free moral agents. This enables us to choose between alternatives and determine which course we will pursue. We are, therefore, accountable before God to make the choices and pursue the goals that God instructs us to do. Third, men and women have emotions. We can experience joy, love, anger, hatred, sorrow, and many other feelings. The Bible also attributes such feelings to God. Fourth, men and women have a conscience. We are able, not only to distinguish right from wrong, but also to have an inherent sense of guilt when we have done wrong and a sense of approval when we has done right. Fifth, men and women have a spirit nature which has the opportunity to be with God in eternity. And sixth, men and women are born with God consciousness. In other words, the human brain is wired to believe in God and the supernatural. The image of God involves much more than this, but it surely includes these six characteristics of humankind.


The first human beings were mentally and physically healthier than modern humans. Adam and Eve were clothed with light when they were created. They lost their illumination when they ate the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Paradise (Eden). The weight of scientific evidence indicates that they probably had a medium-brown and reddish-brown skin complexion. Their pre-flood descendants lived on average for up to 900 years. Pre-flood human males were roughly 180 centimeters tall and females were around 170 centimeters tall. When fallen angels reproduced with human females, the Nephilim came into existence. These Hybrid pre-flood human males reached an average height of about 360 centimeters. Many of their skulls were elongated, gigantic, and thick. These Hybrid humans were responsible for many of the megalithic constructions during the pre-flood and early post-flood generations. They were violent and extremely aggressive during combat and they were cannibals.


Analysis of early post-flood human remains derived from Homo erectus, Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon human populations reveal that a few early humans lived longer than modern humans. Their large thick brow ridges resulted from a lengthy lifespan when post-flood populations lived to be 200 and 300 years. Human growth hormone (HGH) causes a person’s skull to grow as long as the person is alive; therefore, sometimes the thicker his or her brow ridges the older the person. Homo erectus human populations flourished during the early post-flood generations. They proliferated widely from the Middle East into Asia, Africa, Europe, and elsewhere. The anatomical differences between Homo erectus and modern humans concern their skulls and teeth. Homo erectus people had a low, thick braincase with jutting brow-ridges, large noses, and large teeth. Homo erectus males were about 170 centimeters tall. Running and hunting was a major part of their activities.

Neanderthals were post-flood human populations that occupied parts of North Africa, Middle East, and most of Europe and the Mediterranean lands. The Neanderthal name derives from the discovery in 1856 of remains in a cave above Germany’s Neander Valley. Neanderthals were short, stocky, and powerful. Many of the males were about 163 centimeters tall. Their Cranial capacity equaled or surpassed that of modern humans, though their braincases were long, low, and wide. Their limbs were heavy and they walked fully erect and had hands as capable as those of modern humans. They were cave dwellers who used fire, wielded stone tools, and wooden spears to hunt animals, buried their dead, and cared for their sick or injured. They used their unique language to practice their religion.

Cro-Magnon populations proliferated during the early post flood generations and they appear to be the direct ancestors of many modern humans. When Cro-Magnon people migrated from the Middle East into Africa, Asia, Europe and elsewhere, they replaced the Homo erectus and Neanderthal populations that were already occupying those lands. The remains of these people were first discovered in 1868 at the Cro-Magnon rock shelter in the Dordogne region in southern France. The human skeletons that came to be called Cro-Magnon are now considered representative of humans at that time. Cro-Magnons were relatively more robust and powerful than today’s humans, with a somewhat larger brain capacity. The Cro-Magnons are generally associated with the Aurignacian tool industry and artistic tradition. Cro-Magnons seem to have been a settled people, living in caves or primitive huts and lean-tos, moving only when necessary to find new hunting or because of environmental changes. While the average Cro-Magnon was about 175 centimeters tall, a few of them were 200 centimeters in height and taller. For these reasons, the first man and woman were mentally and physically healthier than modern humans living today.


God created the universe by the power of His Word. On the first day, God created the entire universe before He formed the Day and Night cycle (Genesis 1:4 NKJV). On the second day, God formed the Sky and the hydraulic cycle (Genesis 1:7-8 NKJV). On the third day, God formed the super-continent called Pangaea and the super ocean called Panthalassa, and vegetation (Genesis 1:8-10 NKJV). On the fourth Day, God filled the universe with lights when he formed the Sun, Moon, and Stars (Genesis 1:18 NKJV) from the dark invisible matter created during Day One (Genesis 1:1 NKJV). On the fifth Day, God filled the ocean with marine life and the sky with flying creatures (Genesis 1:20 NKJV). On the sixth day, God filled the ground with land animals and humankind (Genesis 1:24-26 NKJV).

The creation days were short periods because each creation day is divided into periods of darkness and daylight. Long creation days would mean that no life could survive the long periods of sunlight and darkness on the Earth’s surface if each day were billions, millions, or thousands of years in duration. It was on day six when God created the insects. If the creation days were long ages, then many botanical life forms would die because most plant-life cannot survive without insects. The interdependent relationships of life forms existing on Earth means that the creation days were short solar days and not long ages. The solar days during the pre-flood years were probably 19 hours long before the days became 24-hours long after the worldwide flood. The geography of the Earth was different because all the major continents were connected together when the planet Earth was 25 percent smaller in size.

When God’s creative work was completed by the conclusion of the Sixth Day, the entire universe in all its beauty and perfection was fully formed in six literal, consecutive, solar days. At the completion of His creation, God announces that His creation was very good. There was no death and destruction of animal kinds before the creation of Humankind. Everything God made was genetically perfect and physically and mentally healthier than the life forms existing today. The environment was perfectly designed for maximum genetic expression in all life forms. Again, everything God created was designed to reproduce after its own kind. The Genesis creation account has already shown that this was true of the plants, fish, and birds and here we are told that it was also true of the land animals. Again, this thoroughly and necessarily contradicts Darwinism and evolutionism in all its forms. And again all was declared by God to be good.

Finally, God came to the crowning creation, the greatest and most dominate of His creatures. He made humankind, male and female. Here God is referred to as “us” and “our” (Genesis 1:26 NKJV) and then “His” and “He” (Genesis 1:27 NKJV). This cannot refer to the angels because the man and woman were made in God’s image, not the image of angels. The “us” and “our” (Genesis 1:26 NKJV) must refer to God. Hence, God is both singular and plural — three in one. Here is further evidence of the plural individuals in the singular God. Other passages in which the individual beings in God appear to be conversing are Psalm 2:7; 110:1; 45:7; Isaiah 48:16; as well as the many New Testament references to the Father and Son. Note that Yeshua quoted Genesis 1:27 in Matthew 19:4, thereby proving His acceptance of this account as historic, factual revelation from God. The term “man” (Genesis1:26-27 NKJV) clearly includes both male and female. Hence, by Divine decree, woman wears the name of man. “Man” can refer to the male or to the human race including both male and female.


Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003. Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998. Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992. Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990. Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000. The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851. The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982. The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010. Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999. Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002. The Genesis Account of Creation; Lee Warren, B.A., D.D.; 1997. Creation Revealed in Six Days; P.J. Wiseman; 1946.Quantum Faith; Annette Capps; 2007; The Garden of Eden DVD; Stan Deyo; 2014.




“Then God said, “Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” So the evening and the morning were the fifth day.” (Genesis 1:20-23).

On the fifth day, God filled the sky with flying creatures and the ocean with marine life forms. These creatures included fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds, and insects. The fossil record show that these creatures were larger in size probably because they lived longer in an environment designed for maximum genetic expression. God created many other life forms during the Fifth Day, but only the fishes and birds are mentioned. God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.” (Genesis 1:20-23 NKJV). Furthermore, when God created all marine life forms and all flying creatures, this may be the time when God made flying insects also. All of these creatures are made with the ability to perpetuate their kind by biological reproduction. The creatures made on Day Five are the first creatures blessed by God.


The creation of marine reptiles included the ancestors of the Leviathan. The Leviathan is the marine animal described by God in the book of Job (chapter 41) as a terrifying fire-breathing sea monster. The creature is described as a strong beast with a tough outer “armor”. He cannot be pulled out with a fishhook and no warrior dares to fight him. This animal breathed fire and snorted out smoke. The Leviathan is a reference to an extinct animal that was alive and known to those that lived during the pre-flood and early post flood eras. This animal was probably a plesiosaur, such as the Kronosaurus, pliosaur, mosasaurs. Others have proposes it was the giant armored crocodile Sarcosuchus.

Kronosaurus creatures were the greatest and most powerful animals ever to swim in the deep ocean. They were not true dinosaurs, but they were reptile-like and they had large sharp teeth. These gigantic animals were still alive at the time of King David. Psalm 104 says they played where the ships go to and fro. This was probably the Mediterranean Sea. Many reports of “sea serpents” closely match the ancient pliosaurs and mosasaurs. They looked somewhat like huge lizards or crocodiles with flippers or webbed feet. Fossils show their backbones were very flexible. They could probably swim in a snake-like motion. Pliosaurs are extinct clade of marine reptiles. The pliosaurs were short-necked plesiosaurs with large heads and massive toothed jaws. Mosasaurs are large, extinct, marine reptiles. The first fossil remains were discovered in a limestone quarry at Maastricht on the Meuse in 1764. Mosasaurs became the dominant marine predators during the early post-flood era. However, the Leviathans were probably the Sarcosuchus reptiles. These reptiles were extinct genus of crocodyliform. They looked like gigantic crocodiles and they became extinct during the early post-flood era. They were the largest crocodile-like reptiles that ever lived. They were twice as long as the modern saltwater crocodile and they probably weighed up to 8 tones.

The creation of flying reptiles included the Pterosaurs. They flourished during the pre-flood and early post-flood eras. Pterosaurs hung by their long, slender hind limbs when at rest. They soared and glided on fragile, membranous wings that were attached to the long fourth finger of each forelimb and extended along the flank. The first three fingers were slender, clawed, clutching structures. Pterosaurs had a long, slender beak and a large brain. Pterodactyls are part of the family of Pterosaurs and they had slender, delicate teeth that were angled forward long metacarpal bones, and a short tail. They were probably able gliders but not efficient as active fliers, and they apparently lacked feathers. Pterodactyls are probably still alive today in the remote regions of Central and South America.


When God created marine sea animals on the Fifth Day, they were the first complex life forms to occupy the Earth during the creation week. These animals were first vegetarians but became predators during the pre-flood age. A few of the great reptiles of the sea could have lived through the Flood without being taken in to the Ark. Noah was told to protect land-dwelling animals and birds, not fish and other creatures that could survive the global floodwaters. Throughout history, many people have reported about animals like plesiosaurs and other types of unknown creatures. Many scientists agree there are probably many more sea creatures to be discovered. Man knows more about the surface of the moon than he does about life in the world’s great oceans. There is enough evidence for the existence of gigantic “sea monsters” living in the past and probably in the present, according to the eye witness accounts of many sailors and fishermen.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; Speed of Light by Barry Setterfield; D.K Science Encyclopedia.




“Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years; and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. Then God made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also. God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. So the evening and the morning were the fourth day.” (Genesis 1:14-19 NKJV).

On the fourth day, God filled the universe with galaxies, stars, planets, and moons from the matter and energy created during the universal flash of light on the first day. These heavenly spheres were to function as markers for years, seasons, months, weeks, and days (Genesis 1:14-19 NKJV). The sun marked the day (sunset to sunset), the moon marked the month (new moon to new moon), and the stars marked the seasons (spring, summer, winter, and autumn). The pre-flood year was 360 days long, its month equaled 30 days, and its week equal seven days, according to some creation science researchers. Time as we know it began during this day; however, if we could measure the period of the first three days, each day would equal 24 hours in duration because Exodus 20:11 and Exodus 31:17 says God created the physical universe in six days.


God created many first generation stars. A Star system is massive celestial body made up of gas that shines by radiant energy generated from within. The Milky Way Galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars. The closest star to Earth is the Sun. The closest star to the Sun is about 4.2 light-years away and the most distant stars are in galaxies billions of light-years away. Single stars such as the Sun are the minority and many stars occur in pairs and multiple systems. Stars also associate by their mutual gravity in larger assemblages called clusters. Constellations consist not of such groupings but of stars in the same direction as seen from Earth. Stars vary greatly in brightness, color, temperature, mass, size, chemical composition, and age. For many stars, hydrogen is the most abundant element. Stars are classified by their spectra, from blue-white to red, as O, B, A, F, G, K, and M. The Sun is a spectral type G star. Some stars other than the Sun are known to have one or more planets.

When God formed the stars from the matter and energy created on the first day, the light from the stars reach the Earth rapidly. The speed of light was faster during the creation week than it is today (300,000 km per second) because the speed of light has been slowing down since the creation week, according to astronomer Barry Setterfield. Animals and plants were able to survive faster light speed because the pre-flood crystalline canopy offered stronger protection from deadly outer-space radiation, according to Dr. Carl Baugh. The star light was also able to reach the planet Earth faster because of the gravitational space time dilation effect proliferating throughout the universe during the creation week. This history means the universe expanded rapidly during the first five creation days before stabilizing by day six. The rapid expansion of the universe caused a gravitational space time dilation effect throughout the cosmos, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys.


The creation of galaxies included billions of star systems and interstellar matter that make up the universe. The Galaxies vary considerably in size, composition, structure, and activity, but nearly all are arranged in groups, or clusters, containing from a few galaxies to as many as 10,000. Each is composed of millions to trillions of stars; in many, as in the Milky Way Galaxy, nebulae can be detected. A large fraction of the bright galaxies in the sky are spiral galaxies, with a main disk in which spiral arms wind out from the center. The Milky Way Galaxy is probably located near the center of the universe, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys. The stars in galaxies are massive celestial body of gas that shines by radiant energy generated inside it. The Milky Way Galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars and only small fractions are visible to the unaided eye. The Sun is a star around which the components of the solar system revolve. This star system was created less than 10,000 years ago and is the dominant body in our solar system, with more than 99 percent of its mass.


The creation of planets included large natural bodies orbiting the Sun or another star system. The word planet comes from the Greek for “wanderer,” because the planets’ positions change relative to those of the stars. The eight recognized planets that orbit the Sun are, in order of increasing distance, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The moon was created to be the sole natural satellite of Earth. The moon orbits from west to east at a mean distance of approximately 384,400 kilometers. It is less than one-third the size of Earth. Its surface gravity is about one-sixth that of Earth and its gravitational pull is largely responsible for Earth’s tides. The Moon shines by reflected sunlight. It rotates on its axis in about 29.5 days, in exactly the time it takes to orbit Earth, and it therefore always presents the same face to Earth. However, that face is lit by the Sun at different angles as the Moon revolves around Earth, causing it to display different phases over the month, from new to full.


During the four day, the account does not say how the heavenly bodies were formed. It is possible (as discussed on day one) that the material from which they were made had existed in the “heavens” that were created on day one, but was formless and void like the Earth. God may then have put them into their ultimate form and assigned them their duties here on day four. Again, God saw that what He had made was good. Genesis 1:2-31 describes creation of the universe from a geocentric orientation. In other words, the creation account is told from the perspective of the Earth’s surface. While each creation day was a normal 24-hour solar day in duration on Earth’s surface, billions of years of cosmic history transpired in the outer regions of space. This means the first creation day represents 8 billion years of cosmic history; the second creation day represents 4 billion years of cosmic history; the third creation day represents 2 billion years of cosmic history; the fourth creation day represent 1 billion years of cosmic history; the fifth creation day represents 500 millions of cosmic history; and the sixth creation day represents 250
million years of cosmic history. However, all six days equal normal solar days on the Earth’s surface. This means the billions of years of cosmic history given to the universe is a reflection of the universe physical size, but not a precise indication of the universe’s real age. While the Holy Scriptures reveals no precise date for when God created the universe, creation science researchers have determined that the universe is probably less than 10,000 years old.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers Book by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; The Speed of Light Articles by Barry Setterfield; The Inspired Evidence by Julie Von Vett & Brue Malone; The Genesis Conflict by Dr. Walter Veith; The DK Science Encyclopedia Edited by Susan Mckeever. Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder with Zola Levitt; 1998.




“Then God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters He called Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth”; and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, the herb that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in it-self according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. So the evening and the morning were the third day” (Genesis1:9-13 NKJV).


On the third day, God formed a gigantic land mass, a vast ocean, and plant life. When God formed the Earth’s supercontinent, He made three main layers: the crust (on the outside), the mantle (underneath the crust), and the core (the Earth’s center). The core made up of an inner core and an outer core. The supercontinent that God made is sometime referred to as Pangea by creation scientists. Before the global flood, Pangea covered about half the Earth and was completely surrounded by a world ocean called Panthalassa. Early during the global flood, Pangea began to break apart. Its segments, Laurasia (composed of all the present-day northern continents) and Gondwana (the present-day southern continents) gradually receded during the early post-flood days of Peleg (Genesis 10:25), resulting in the formation of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. This means the pre-flood Earth’s surface was probably covered by 50 percent landmass and 50 percent water, according to many creation science researchers. Most of the Earth’s water was located in deep chambers beneath the solid ground. This means that during the third creation day, the Earth changed from a watery sphere into a planet with an irregular surface with ocean basins and a single continental landmass covered with plant life. The plant life existed in the in the ocean and on land (Genesis 1:9-13 NKJV and LXX).

When the dry land and all its attendant elements appeared, a solid granite crust provided form for the surface of the young planet. The ferromagnetic core maintained alignment of the magnetic field. Radioactive elements with adjacent moderating units formed foundations and a controlled nuclear reactor within earth’s interior. The hydrocarbon masses assumed their role as a swaddling band to moderate temperatures in the adjacent water reservoirs. These warm waters fountain up through granite, clays, and sands to re-circulate back into the subterranean reservoir and form a dynamic Hydro-cycle. A great super-continent was outlined on the planet’s surface. Luxuriant plants were created with their fruit and seeds fully formed, thus incorporating “immediate youth” and “functional maturity, according to Dr. Carl Baugh.


The super-ocean Panthalassa surrounded the super-continent Pangaea during the pre-flood generations. This ocean included the Pacific Ocean to the west and north and the Tethys Ocean to the southeast. This ocean became the Pacific Ocean, following the closing of the Tethys basin and the breakup of Pangaea, which created the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian Ocean basins following the great flood. The Panthalassic is often called the Paleo-Pacific (“old Pacific”) because the Pacific Ocean developed from the great flood to the Present. Today the ocean covers nearly 75 percent of the Earth’s surface and is divided into major oceans and smaller seas. The three principal oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian, are largely delimited by land and submarine topographic boundaries. All are connected to what is sometimes called the Southern Ocean, the waters encircling Antarctica. Important marginal seas, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, are partially enclosed by landmasses or island arcs. The largest are the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, Caribbean and adjacent waters, Mediterranean, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Yellow and China Seas, and Sea of Japan.


The plants God made comprise many kinds of mosses, liverworts, ferns, herbaceous and woody plants, bushes, vines, trees, and various other forms living in the Earth and its waters. These plants range in size and complexity from small, nonvascular mosses, which depend on direct contact with surface water, to giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms, which can draw water and minerals through their vascular systems to elevations of more than 100 meters. During the pre-Flood era plants decorated the entire landmass because there were no desert regions with extreme hot or cold temperatures. Pre-flood human populations could feast on a variety of plants that became extinct or corrupted after the great flood.

Today, only a tiny percentage of plant species are directly used by humans for food, shelter, fiber, and drugs. At the head of the list are rice, wheat, corn, legumes, cotton, conifers, and tobacco, on which whole economies and nations depend. Of even greater importance to humans are the indirect benefits reaped from the entire plant kingdom and many generations of carrying out photosynthesis. Plants have laid down the fossil fuels that provide power for industrial society, and throughout their long history plants have supplied sufficient oxygen to the atmosphere to support living systems. Today the world’s biomass is composed overwhelmingly of plants, which not only underpin almost all food webs, but also modify climates and create and hold down soil, making what would otherwise be stony, sandy masses habitable for life.


The pre-flood Earth that God made on the Third Creation Day was good. God himself called the Earth Good. When God calls something He created good, then it is perfect. The Earth that we live on today is far from perfect, and cannot be the original Earth God had first created. The pre-flood Earth that God created must have had perfect topography, perfect weather conditions, perfect water supply, perfect landscape, and perfect growth conditions. The Earth was a single land mass, because the waters were commanded to gather to one place (into one ocean). The Garden of Eden was probably created in the center of the Earth’s surface.

According to Genesis, God had created a perfect land mass, called Earth. After 10 generations spanning almost 2,000 years, God destroyed the Earth (land mass) by a universal Flood. This destruction is described in Genesis chapters 6 to 9. The first mention of islands is after the global Flood (Genesis 10:5). The Flood was an event of unprecedented magnitude. A few creation scientists underestimate its magnitude. They are content to establish it was universal, covered all land mass, destroyed all life and caused the deposition of fossils in sedimentary rock layers. They assume the continents were pretty much the same way before the Flood. They do not accept that after the Flood we had a new arrangement of land mass. The breakup of the super-continent was the major impact of the Flood.

Today some creation science researchers know that the planet Earth has expanded in physical size by 25 percent because of the global flood during Noah’s generation (Genesis 7: 1-24) and the division of the Earth during age of Peleg (Genesis 10:25). The Earth expanded rapidly when global flood began and it continued its expansion for another 150 years before slowing down to the gradual expansion rate existing today. The scientific evidence supporting this theory includes continental draft theory, the ocean floors, and reduced gravity.
The solar day on the pre-flood Earth was roughly 19 hours long because the planet Earth was roughly 25 percent smaller in size. This fact means the pre-flood patriarchs lived for a very long time, but they were 25 percent younger in age. Dinosaurs reach gigantic size because of reduced gravity, which caused these reptiles to support their massive weight, according to Dr. Stan Deyo.


All the plants God made reproduce after their kind because they have seed in themselves. This agrees with what we see in nature today, but conflicts with Darwinism. Evolution would say that, given enough time, the kinds of living things would develop into different kinds; therefore, all the present kinds came from one original kind. But the Bible says the living things reproduce after their own kind. There is great diversity or variation within each kind, allowing for adaptation to environment, but each kind remains the same kind. This reproduction after the same kind, which we continue to observe today, occurs because of the power of seed. Scientists have now confirmed that each kind of living thing has its own seed, and that seed has genes and chromosomes that determine the kind of plant that will develop from the seed. These genes and chromosomes came, in turn, from the parent plants. There is some variation within the genes and chromosomes of each kind of plant, allowing diversity and adaptation to environment. But still each seed produces the same kind of living thing from which it came, just as Genesis says. This fact is taught, not just in Genesis chapters 1 and 2, but also elsewhere throughout the Bible, and is used as the basis for fundamental, scientific fact.


The Genesis creation account describes the plants as having seed in themselves from the very beginning. They were created mature on the very first day of their creation, as was later done with the animals, Adam and Eve. They are described as being capable of propagating from the first day of their existence. This is miraculous, of course. Normally a plant or animal takes weeks, months, or years to mature to the point it can reproduce. The point here, however, is that, if a person were to observe these full-grown plants one day after they had been made and if he were to assume that they had grown to maturity gradually as modern plants do, he would have concluded them to be weeks, months, or years old. However, they would have been only one day old. This is called “creation with apparent age.” God plainly tells us here what He did; therefore, there is nothing deceitful about this. He created everything to do its job from the day they were created.

Because all things were made supernaturally, there was no reason why He should make them immature. He could make them mature as easily as He could make them immature. And by making them mature, He formed a functioning, operational Earth. After the six days of creation, all was set in motion to function properly on an ongoing basis, just like it can function today. Had things been made immature, the Earth would have taken years to reach the point of mature function. Who would have cared for the immature animals as they grew? By making them mature, God made it possible for them to care for themselves and to reproduce and to care for their offspring, from the very beginning. The same principle would apply to all that God made. Everything was capable of functioning from the very beginning.

By today’s natural laws, it would have taken things years to develop and for things to become operational and biologically functional. This explains one reason why people today misjudge the age of the universe. If we assume that all things were originally immature, as many Darwinists assume, and that all things proceed by the same naturalistic processes as exist today, then we will inevitably judge nature to be much older than it really is. However, the Bible describes a very young, but fully mature creation in the beginning, which appears to be many thousands, many millions, and few billions of years old to the secular scientific community. This same truth would apply to the formation of dry land. If we assume that the mountains arose from gradual processes such as we observe today, the formation of mountains would have taken millennia. But the Bible says that, what may appear to have taken millions of years by modern processes, really occurred in one day by God’s miracles of creation, according to Dr. Henry Morris.


The third day involved the formation of the dry land, in contrast to the seas, and plants to live on that land. Again this was done by the power of God’s word, and again what was done was declared by God to be good. The creation of the super-continent and super-ocean on this day formed the original Earth. Today, some creation scientists are convinced that all the continents were once joined together into a single continental landmass before the great flood and the generation of Peleg (Genesis 10:25). The theory of continental breakup postulated that a single supercontinent fragmented during Noah’s flood before completely separating into the seven major continents during the days of Peleg and shortly afterwards. The similarity of rock strata in the Americas and Africa are evidence to support this theory. These massive geophysical activities occurred during and after the great flood followed by a rebirth of a new post-flood world thousands of years ago.

We first discover evidence for the expanding Earth with the first complete theory of continental drift proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener. Wegener postulated that a single supercontinent, which he called Pangea, fragmented late in the Triassic Period and that the parts began to move away from one another. He pointed to the similarity of rock strata in the Americas and Africa as evidence to support his hypothesis. Wegener’s ideas received support from the concepts of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics beginning in the 1960s. The modern theory states that the Americas were joined with Europe and Africa in the past, when they split apart along what is now the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Subsequent tectonic plate movements took the continents to their present positions. Today, many creation science researchers believe this cataclysmic geophysical separation occurred during the days of Noah and again in Peleg’s generation.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; Speed of Light by Barry Setterfield; D.K Science Encyclopedia. Commentary on Genesis by David E Pratte; The Garden of Eden DVD by Dr. Stan Deyo.




“Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day” (Genesis 1:6-8 NKJV).

On the second creation day, God made the Earth’s atmosphere when He divided the waters by forming the firmament. The pre-flood atmosphere was superior to the post flood atmosphere. This primeval atmosphere facilitated optimum genetic expression in all living systems, which contributed to the worldwide gigantism and longevity in all life forms discovered in the fossil record. The Holy Scriptures describes this atmosphere as the firmament.


The word firmament originates from the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the Hebrew raki’a. This word means simply “expansion.” It denotes the space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately above Earth bound observers. They who rendered raki’a by firmamentum regarded it as a solid body. The language of Scripture is not scientific but popular and visual, and hence we read either of the sun rising and setting or of the stars falling from heaven, which is also used here in Genesis with the word firmament. It appears the word for firmament was used to describe solidity and expansion. It formed a division between the waters above and the waters below (Genesis 1:7). The raki’a supported the upper reservoir (Psalm 148:4). It was the support also of the heavenly bodies (Genesis 1:14), and is spoken of as having “windows” and “doors” (Genesis 7:11; Isaiah 24:18; Malachi 3:10) through which the rain and snow might descend. The word “firmament” is mentioned twice in the Psalms as the place of God’s handiwork (Psalms 19:1; 150:1). This term is mentioned again in the books of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:22-26; 10:1) and Daniel (Daniel 12:3), the firmament is always related to Creation. Therefore, the word firmament demonstrates that the Holy Scriptures employ the language of visual appearance and not the language of precise scientific description.

The “firmament” is not a word that we use today; therefore, we must study the word to understand what the Bible is saying. Fortunately in Genesis 1:20 it becomes perfectly clear: “Let birds fly above the Earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” This means the “firmament” is the sky, where the birds fly. In other words, the sky appeared between the water above the sky, and the water below the sky. After the appearance of the firmament there were three separate layers: First layer describes the water in the stratosphere, second layer describes the sky, where the birds fly, and third layer describes the water below the sky, now known as the sea. There was therefore, at the original Creation, a water canopy in the stratosphere, above the sky. After Noah’s Flood this water canopy in the stratosphere was removed, and the water became part of the waters of the Flood of Noah. The water canopy in the stratosphere is therefore no longer present. The water canopy originally provided protection against cosmic radiation from outer space.


The creation of this crystalline water canopy made the pre-flood Earth’s temperature warm worldwide. There were no major variations of temperature over the entire Earth because of the “greenhouse effect” created by the crystalline water canopy in the stratosphere. This water canopy theory partially explains the longevity and gigantism observed in pre-flood plants, animals, and humans. The crystalline water canopy theory explains the blocking of dangerous X-rays and ultraviolet radiation. However, today many creation science researchers reject the canopy theory. One of the very important functions of the upper atmosphere today is that much of the dangerous radiation from the sun is filtered out. However, some dangerous radiation still gets through to the surface of the Earth. This is why overexposure to sunlight can cause skin cancer many people. The blocking of dangerous X-rays and gamma rays would probably have been much greater before the Flood. This probably accounts for the much longer life spans of the patriarchs recorded in the Bible where they lived to be over 900 years.

When we consider that Genesis 2:5-6 indicates that at least prior to the creation of Adam, rain did not fall but that the plants were nourished by springs coming up out of the ground. The Bible does not actually mention rain until the Flood, and a canopy by providing a greenhouse effect could have lessened the need for the water cycle. If Noah was the first person to see a rainbow, that would add further strength to the canopy theory. Genesis 7:11-12 says it rained for 40 days and nights. Such a lengthy deluge would be impossible today because there is not nearly enough moisture in the present atmosphere; therefore, there had to be much more water in the heavens of Noah’s time. Many ancient cultures have legends that seem to describe a canopy-type phenomenon. The Babylonian creation account, Enuma Elish, mentions fogs, clouds, and mists covering the early Earth.

Fossils such as palm trees in Alaska, crocodiles in New Jersey, and petrified wood in the desert suggests a warmer climate in the past and perhaps a more uniform worldwide climate which a canopy might have provided. Although Genesis mentions seasons in relation to the creation of the heavenly bodies, summer and winter seasonal heat and cold as such are not mentioned in Scripture until after the Flood. A canopy would have provided an increased atmospheric pressure, heavier air in other words, that would have allowed the prehistoric flying reptiles such as the Pteranodon to have taken flight. These creatures would not be able to fly in today’s thinner atmosphere unless they became significantly smaller in size.

The canopy theory explains the long ages of the early humans and the giantism found in many plants and animals in the fossil record. The canopy would have absorbed much of the harmful radiation that is known to have damaging effects on the genetic makeup of organisms. With less radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, living things could have lived much longer and in the case of some species, grown to gigantic sizes. Furthermore, increased air pressure and oxygen would have been beneficial to Earth’s living systems.


The water canopy in the stratosphere would have dramatically increased the partial pressure of gases on Earth, causing 50 percent higher concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This is proved in experiments on pre-Flood air trapped in fossilized tree sap, now known as the semi-precious stone, Amber. The partial pressure of oxygen in the pre-flood atmosphere was at one time 50 percent higher than it is now, based the oxygen content found in Amber by science researchers. Amber is a semi-precious stone, commonly used in jewelry. Amber is actually fossilized tree sap, and frequently contains either insects, or bubbles of air. The bubbles of air in Amber have an oxygen content that is 50 percent higher than the present atmospheric air. These findings confirm that the pre-flood Earth had much higher oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. This evidence confirms the theory about higher oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, caused by the water canopy before Noah’s Flood.


The creation of the water crystalline canopy on the second day facilitated warm temperatures worldwide, high oxygen levels globally, and lack of dangerous radiation in the pre-flood Earth. The Garden of Eden conditions described in the early chapters of Genesis were probably reflected all over the entire Earth. There was probably abundant vegetation, animals, birds and fish. Because of the warmer and more constant ambient temperature, and the high partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide humans, animals, birds, insects, and fish were much larger, as revealed in the fossil record described below. The first humans, Adam and Eve, were created in the image of God, and they were superior to modern humans both physically and mentally because they were equipped with perfect genes devoid of debilitating mutations. Genetic mutations increased significantly after the worldwide flood when the crystalline water canopy collapsed suddenly.

Because of the protective effect of the water canopy, there was protection from damaging ultraviolet rays and gamma rays, with probably much lower incidence of biological diseases triggered by genetic mutations. Because of the higher oxygen levels, the high blood oxygen levels would have contributed to extreme longevity, resistance to bacterial and viral diseases, and greater metabolic efficiency, with consequent greatly enhanced athletic ability. Before Noah’s Flood people lived over 900 years, but today most people live under 90 years.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; Speed of Light by Barry Setterfield; D.K Science Encyclopedia.




“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw the light and that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.” (Genesis 1:1-5 NKJV).

The Holy Scriptures reveal that God made the universe in six days, according to Genesis 1:1-31, Exodus 20:11, and Exodus 31:17. On the first day, God created the universe before He reshaped the planet Earth into a gigantic spherical mass of empty water in Genesis 1:2 and then He divided the light from darkness in Genesis 1:3. This supernatural light would never have been mentioned by evolutionists. On day two God separated the water from the air. The origins of oxygen would not predate land, according to the evolution theory. On the third day, God created the land and plants. On the fourth day, God created the sun, moon, and stars. The Earth predating the sun, moon, and stars by three days is considered scientific heresy by evolutionists. On day five fish and birds were created. The birds coming before land animals contradict all macro-evolutionary models. On the sixth day of creation, land animals and man were created. At this time there was no death on the Earth, and God proclaimed it was good. The six days of creation contradicts all evolutionary models, which claims death predates humankind.


God creates through a process of first forming and later filling. The first three days describe God forming the universe while the last three days records God filling the universe, according to Dr. Weston Fields. In other words, God form the light on the First Day before filling the universe with stars, galaxies, planets, and moons on the Fourth Day. God formed the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean on the Second Day before filling the sky and sea with flying creatures and marine life forms on the Fifth Day. God formed a single landmass on the Third Day before filling the super-continent with land animals and humankind on the Sixth Day (Genesis 1:1-31 NKJV). From Genesis to Revelation, God is always forming order out of chaos, light out of darkness, life out of death, and success out of failure. Today, God is continually forming and filling the lives of believers daily.


God created the entire universe on the first day by the power of His words. This means that God spoke the universe into existence with invisible energy, according to Psalm 33:9, Isaiah 45:11-12, John 1:1-5, and Hebrews 11:3. This explanation makes no sense until we study quantum physics and string theory where we learn the relationship between invisible energy and visible matter. All matter is made up of atoms, which are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Within these subatomic particles are quarks. Beyond the quarks are smaller energy particles which behave like vibrating strings generating waves of energy. This means that the correct quantum vibration of energy can generate and shape matter. String theory demonstrates that Genesis is supported by quantum physics. Today, the most self-consistent string theories propose 11 dimensions; four correspond to the three ordinary spatial dimensions and time, while the rest are believed to be curled up and not perceptible to humanity, according to some creation science researchers.

When God used His word to create all things, this also means that God employed the sound wave energy from His voice to create and shape matter. God’s words are vibrations of energy that affects matter. All “things” (matter) are made of atoms. Nothing is really solid, including the kitchen table even if it is made of oak and steel. We may not see the space between the atoms in our table, but if we could see that small, we could also see movement because the kitchen table is vibrating. Everything has a frequency of vibration. We vibrate, our cars vibrate, and even large mountains vibrate. They all have a natural frequency.

Faith is an unseen energy force. It is not matter, but it creates matter and actually becomes matter. That is because faith-energized words convert energy to matter. Words are the catalyst that turns the substance of faith into physical manifestation. Faith is the raw material from which all matter is made. Hebrews 11:1 says that “faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.” These words mean that faith is the invisible substance from which God’s physical universe was created. God used faith-substance and word-energy to create the universe. He spoke and the vibration (sound) of His words released the substance that became the stars, planets, and everything else.


On the first creation day, God made the universe. The words “in the beginning God created the heavens (SPACE-TIME DIMENSION) and the Earth (ENERGY-MATTER/E=MC2)” describe God forming space, time, and matter into existence, which makes up the universe. Genesis 1:1 describes invisible energy transformation into all matter, which is explained in Albert Einstein’s famous E=MC2 equation. This equation sketches the energy conversion into matter. The universe as it exists was not produced by some cosmic accident. The conditions of creation were intricately planned and considered. A mindless uncontrolled “big bang” would result in destruction and chaos, not the life and order we now observe. On the other hand, a great initial expansion of physical matter that had just been transformed from pure energy, followed by orderly formation of stars, galaxies and everything else, is reasonable, rational, and logical.


The Biblical word for “HEAVENS” is used in three different ways in the Bible. First, the word describes the Earth’s atmosphere, where the birds fly (Genesis 1:20; Hosea 4:3; Proverbs 23:5 NKJV), Second, the word describes outer space where the sun, moon, and stars are, perhaps including the atmosphere (Genesis 1:14-17; 22:17; Joshua 10:13). And third, the word describes the eternal, spiritual dwelling place of God almighty and His holy angels (1 Kings 8:27, 30; Psalm 11:4; Matthew 5:16; 6:9; 1 Peter 1:12; 2 Corinthians 12:2,4 NKJV). The word for “HEAVENS” here in Genesis 1:1 cannot have the last meaning. This word does not refer to the atmosphere as we now know it. This word does not refer to the heavenly bodies as we now know them because they were not formed till the second and fourth creation days. We must conclude that the term “HEAVENS” here mostly likely refer to all the matter above the Earth which at this point remained UNORGANIZED just as the Earth itself existed, but was not
yet organized (Genesis 1:2 NKJV). Later in the creation process, the heavens were organized into the atmosphere and the heavenly bodies, just as Earth itself was later organized into a form such as we now know it. In other words, here God formed the space-time dimension before creating the matter that would fill the universe.

Space is 3-dimensional because it includes the measurements of height, depth, and width. Time is 3-dimensional because it involves the realm of past, present, and future. The space-time dimension is the single entity that relates space and time in a four-dimensional structure. Albert Einstein postulated this concept in his relativity theory. Before Einstein, the scientific community believed that there was no connection between space and time. Many scientists believe that space was a 3-dimensional arrangement of all possible point locations. They viewed time as an independent one-dimensional concept. However, Einstein demonstrated that a relative motion complete description require equations that include time along with the three spatial dimensions. He demonstrated that space-time is curved, which allowed him to account for gravitation in his general relativity theory.


The word EARTH refers to the matter and energy or material substance decorating the universe. At this point in creation, the planet Earth existed as a mass of empty water. In other words, God had only brought into existence the basic elements to be used in forming the universe. But what existed had no useful or meaningful shape (without form), and contained nothing (void – it was uninhabited, no life yet existed). The surface of Earth is described simply as the “deep” and “waters” – apparently a solution or liquid form of matter in no useful form. Furthermore, there was apparently no existing energy, for there was darkness. All our energy comes physically from light. At this time there was no light. Darkness is the absence of light. However, God the Holy Spirit was present hovering over the waters. He was alive and involved in the events, though after this we are told little of what He did.
Matter and energy are two different expressions of the same physical entity and they are material substances that constitute the observable universe and they form the basis of all objective phenomena. Matter is made up of atoms and all atoms contain protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. Every physical entity can be described, physically, and mathematically, in terms of interrelated quantities of mass, inertia, and gravitation. Matter generally occurs in four states plasmas, gases, liquids, and solids.

Energy exists in various forms, including kinetic, potential, thermal, chemical, electrical, and nuclear. Energy can be converted from one form to another. Although energy may be converted from one form to another, it may not be created or destroyed because the total energy in a closed system remains constant. All forms of energy are associated with motion. Heat and work involve the transfer of energy and heat transferred may become thermal energy.

Genesis 1:1-2 are included in the events of the first creation day. This perspective clearly fit the pattern of the chapter. The chapter is divided into sections by days and each section ends with words the evening and the morning were of particular day. The main reason for this view is that God’s word expressly says in Exodus 20:11: “For in six days the Lord made the HEAVENS and the EARTH, the sea, and
all that is in them.” This truth is expressly repeated in Exodus 31:17. This appears to mean that God’s word expressly states that the HEAVENS and EARTH (universe) were made in the six days of creation. This means that Genesis 1:1 is part of the events of the first day. Therefore, on the first day God brought the HEAVENS and Earth into existence before God created light.


When God says “light there be light” in Genesis 1:3, this form of light was supernatural light originating from the Creator Himself because the galaxies, stars, planets, and moons were not created until creation day four. God’s light is much brighter than the noonday sun because Paul said Messiah Yeshua appeared to him as light brighter than the noonday sun (Acts 9:15 NKJV). The Earth’s primeval atmosphere was so heavily overcast with thick darkness that only God’s light could remove the darkness. We read elsewhere in Scripture that God is light (1 John 1:5 NKJV). Messiah Yeshua said “I am the light of the world” (John 8:12 NKJV). We read in Revelation 21:22-24 that the Earth’s inhabitants have no need of the sun because God’s light illuminates the Earth’s atmosphere. God’s light flooded the universe and it generated additional matter and energy required for the formation of galaxies, stars, planets, and moons on the fourth creation day (Genesis 1:14-19 NKJV).

The creation of the heavens and the Earth formed the raw materials required for the following days. The word for heavens” refers to everything beyond the Earth, outer space. In other words, the words for HEAVENS and EARTH describe the entire universe made up of space, time, and matter. The planet Earth is made as mass of water before the God’s Spirit give the Earth a spherical shape. God then speaks visible light into existence. The Light of this period was supernatural and it flooded the universe in a flash. This light shined on the Earth before the creation of the sun, moon, and stars. God then separates the light from the darkness and names the light “DAY” and the darkness “NIGHT.” All of this creative work occurs during one day.

When God separated visible light from darkness, he divided what was different in essence, for darkness is the absence of visible light. They are separate and cannot be the same. Light removes darkness. This physical truth is the symbol of many spiritual truths regarding right and wrong (1 John 1:3-7 NKJV). Darkness did not cease to exist, but it was distinct from visible light. God named His creations. Visible light was called “day” and darkness called “night.” The evening and morning were the first day. In this verse it appears that “evening” and “morning” refer to the darkness and light God had just made.


Modern cosmology teaches that the universe is more than 10 billion years old. On the other hand, some creation scientists teach the universe is less than 10 thousand years old. Many people have been taught that the universe is the result of an explosion called the “Big Bang”. This explosion was triggered by a quantum fluctuation. During this explosive expansion, all the matter of the universe supposedly expanded outward from a tiny pinpoint. This cosmic expansion began from its “center” where all of the matter exploded outward from its “center.” We would assume that the universe had a center and an edge. However, all modern cosmological models start with the assumption that the universe has neither a center nor an edge (This concept is almost impossible to imagine). The Big Bang theory says the universe is billions of years old at every location. However, this evolutionary assumption directly contradicts logic and reason.

Rather than begin with these evolutionary assumptions (a universe having no center and no edge), a few creation science physicists decided to take the most apparent meaning of the Holy Bible and see what model of the universe developed. The Bible clearly indicates three things about God’s formation of the universe. First, the planet Earth is the center of God’s attention in the universe. By inference, the Earth is probably located near the center so that humankind can see the glory of God’s creation in every direction. Second, the universe (both matter and space itself) has been “stretched out”, according to the Holy Scriptures (Isaiah 45:11-12 and Isaiah 51:12-13) and scientific observations. Third, the universe has a boundary, and therefore it must have a center. When we plug in these biblical revelations, scientific observations, and rational assumptions into the currently accepted formulas of physics, we discover that we are living in a universe in which clocks tick at different rates depending on our location in the universe.

Furthermore, the time dilation effect would be magnified tremendously as the universe was originally expanding. As the universe expanded, there was a point when time was moving very rapidly at the outer edge and essentially stopped near the center. At this point in the expansion of the universe, only days were passing near the center, while billions of years were passing in the heavens. This theory means that only a few days went by on the Earth’s surface, during a seven day creation week, while millions and billions of years of cosmic history transpired in the expanding outer regions of space. This is the inevitable conclusion based on Dr. Albert Einstein’s General Relativity Theory and Dr. Russell Humphreys’ New Creation Science Model. This means that the universe is both billions of years old and thousands of years old, according to Dr. Chuck Missler.


On the first day, God creates the entire universe with the formation of time, space, and matter. The Holy Scriptures begins with the universe’s creation when Moses wrote the words “In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth” (Genesis 1:1 NKJV). The word for beginning sketches the creation of time. The word for heaven describes the creation of space. And the word for Earth describes the creation of matter. In other words, this first verse describes the formation of the space-time dimension along with invisible energy transformation into all matter, which is explained in Albert Einstein’s famous E=MC2 equation. This equation sketches the energy conversion into matter. The second verse describes the Earth after its original formation and after the universe’s creation: “Now the Earth was formless and empty, darkness covered the Earth’s watery surface and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters” (Genesis 1:2 NKJV). Genesis chapter one verse two reveals the perspective of the following creation events.

The original universe was UNFORMED and UNFILLED because it had no galaxies, no stars, no planets (except Earth), and no moons. The cosmos was decorated with the darkness of outer-space and only the planet Earth existed. The original planet Earth was unformed and unfilled because it existed as a gigantic mass of empty water (Genesis 1:2 NKJV). God’s Spirit moved on the watery mass and generated a spherical shape. All life on Earth depends on water to survive and function properly. Plants need water to properly perform photosynthesis. Humans and animals need water to stay hydrated and for cellular respiration to work. Water contains the integration of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O). The Earth’s surface is the perspective of the entire creation history. This means that after Genesis 1:1, the whole creation account is described from the perspective of a geocentric orientation or from the view of the planet Earth’s surface.

God’s first creation on the unformed earth was light. Light is energy from which all our other energy forms come. To have life as we know it, energy is required. Thus, God began by making the energy — light. What God created was “good.” This is said repeatedly regarding nearly every day, and is stated in summary regarding the whole creation (Genesis 1:31 NKJV). God is perfect and makes no mistakes. God originally made all things very good and fully functional and perfect before the universe began its decline because of entropy and thermodynamics increasing after the creation week.

Creation; Dr. Grant R. Jeffrey; 2003.Genesis One; Dr. Gerald Schroeder With Zola Levitt; 1998.Genesis and The Big Bang; Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D.;1992.Inspired Evidence; Bruce Malone;2011.Starlight and Time; D. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D.; 1990.Rethinking Genesis; Duane Garrett; 2000.The English Septuagint Version, Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; 1851.The Genesis Conflict; Dr. Walter Veith; 2002.The New Answers Book1; Ken Ham; 2006.The New Answers Book2; Ken Ham; 2008.The New Answers Book3; Ken Ham; 2010.The New Answers Book4; Ken Ham; 2014.The New King James Version; Thomas Nelson; 1982.The Speed of Light Commentary; Barry Setterfield; 1998.The Signature of God; Grant R. Jeffrey; 2010.Three Views on Creation and Evolution; J.P. Morland & John Mark Reynolds; 1999.Unveiling Mysteries of the Bible; Grant. R. Jeffrey; 2002; Halley’s Bible Handbook; Henry H, Halley; 1965. Starlight & Time; Dr. Russell Humphreys; 2010.