Christian Apologetics Study



“Then God said, “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Thus God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day” (Genesis 1:6-8 NKJV).

On the second creation day, God made the Earth’s atmosphere when He divided the waters by forming the firmament. The pre-flood atmosphere was superior to the post flood atmosphere. This primeval atmosphere facilitated optimum genetic expression in all living systems, which contributed to the worldwide gigantism and longevity in all life forms discovered in the fossil record. The Holy Scriptures describes this atmosphere as the firmament.


The word firmament originates from the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the Hebrew raki’a. This word means simply “expansion.” It denotes the space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately above Earth bound observers. They who rendered raki’a by firmamentum regarded it as a solid body. The language of Scripture is not scientific but popular and visual, and hence we read either of the sun rising and setting or of the stars falling from heaven, which is also used here in Genesis with the word firmament. It appears the word for firmament was used to describe solidity and expansion. It formed a division between the waters above and the waters below (Genesis 1:7). The raki’a supported the upper reservoir (Psalm 148:4). It was the support also of the heavenly bodies (Genesis 1:14), and is spoken of as having “windows” and “doors” (Genesis 7:11; Isaiah 24:18; Malachi 3:10) through which the rain and snow might descend. The word “firmament” is mentioned twice in the Psalms as the place of God’s handiwork (Psalms 19:1; 150:1). This term is mentioned again in the books of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:22-26; 10:1) and Daniel (Daniel 12:3), the firmament is always related to Creation. Therefore, the word firmament demonstrates that the Holy Scriptures employ the language of visual appearance and not the language of precise scientific description.

The “firmament” is not a word that we use today; therefore, we must study the word to understand what the Bible is saying. Fortunately in Genesis 1:20 it becomes perfectly clear: “Let birds fly above the Earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.” This means the “firmament” is the sky, where the birds fly. In other words, the sky appeared between the water above the sky, and the water below the sky. After the appearance of the firmament there were three separate layers: First layer describes the water in the stratosphere, second layer describes the sky, where the birds fly, and third layer describes the water below the sky, now known as the sea. There was therefore, at the original Creation, a water canopy in the stratosphere, above the sky. After Noah’s Flood this water canopy in the stratosphere was removed, and the water became part of the waters of the Flood of Noah. The water canopy in the stratosphere is therefore no longer present. The water canopy originally provided protection against cosmic radiation from outer space.


The creation of this crystalline water canopy made the pre-flood Earth’s temperature warm worldwide. There were no major variations of temperature over the entire Earth because of the “greenhouse effect” created by the crystalline water canopy in the stratosphere. This water canopy theory partially explains the longevity and gigantism observed in pre-flood plants, animals, and humans. The crystalline water canopy theory explains the blocking of dangerous X-rays and ultraviolet radiation. One of the very important functions of the upper atmosphere today is that much of the dangerous radiation from the sun is filtered out. However, some dangerous radiation still gets through to the surface of the Earth. This is why overexposure to sunlight can cause skin cancer many people. The blocking of dangerous X-rays and gamma rays would probably have been much greater before the Flood. This probably accounts for the much longer life spans of the patriarchs recorded in the Bible where they lived to be over 900 years.

When we consider that Genesis 2:5-6 indicates that at least prior to the creation of Adam, rain did not fall but that the plants were nourished by springs coming up out of the ground. The Bible does not actually mention rain until the Flood, and a canopy by providing a greenhouse effect could have lessened the need for the water cycle. If Noah was the first person to see a rainbow, that would add further strength to the canopy theory. Genesis 7:11-12 says it rained for 40 days and nights. Such a lengthy deluge would be impossible today because there is not nearly enough moisture in the present atmosphere; therefore, there had to be much more water in the heavens of Noah’s time. Many ancient cultures have legends that seem to describe a canopy-type phenomenon. The Babylonian creation account, Enuma Elish, mentions fogs, clouds, and mists covering the early Earth.

Fossils such as palm trees in Alaska, crocodiles in New Jersey, and petrified wood in the desert suggests a warmer climate in the past and perhaps a more uniform worldwide climate which a canopy might have provided. Although Genesis mentions seasons in relation to the creation of the heavenly bodies, summer and winter seasonal heat and cold as such are not mentioned in Scripture until after the Flood. A canopy would have provided an increased atmospheric pressure, heavier air in other words, that would have allowed the prehistoric flying reptiles such as the Pteranodon to have taken flight. These creatures would not be able to fly in today’s thinner atmosphere unless they became significantly smaller in size.

The canopy theory explains the long ages of the early humans and the giantism found in many plants and animals in the fossil record. The canopy would have absorbed much of the harmful radiation that is known to have damaging effects on the genetic makeup of organisms. With less radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, living things could have lived much longer and in the case of some species, grown to gigantic sizes. Furthermore, increased air pressure and oxygen would have been beneficial to Earth’s living systems.


The water canopy in the stratosphere would have dramatically increased the partial pressure of gases on Earth, causing 50 percent higher concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide. This is proved in experiments on pre-Flood air trapped in fossilized tree sap, now known as the semi-precious stone, Amber. The partial pressure of oxygen in the pre-flood atmosphere was at one time 50 percent higher than it is now, based the oxygen content found in Amber by science researchers. Amber is a semi-precious stone, commonly used in jewelry. Amber is actually fossilized tree sap, and frequently contains either insects, or bubbles of air. The bubbles of air in Amber have an oxygen content that is 50 percent higher than the present atmospheric air. These findings confirm that the pre-flood Earth had much higher oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. This evidence confirms the theory about higher oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, caused by the water canopy before Noah’s Flood.


The creation of the water crystalline canopy on the second day facilitated warm temperatures worldwide, high oxygen levels globally, and lack of dangerous radiation in the pre-flood Earth. The Garden of Eden conditions described in the early chapters of Genesis were probably reflected all over the entire Earth. There was probably abundant vegetation, animals, birds and fish. Because of the warmer and more constant ambient temperature, and the high partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide humans, animals, birds, insects, and fish were much larger, as revealed in the fossil record described below. The first humans, Adam and Eve, were created in the image of God, and they were superior to modern humans both physically and mentally because they were equipped with perfect genes devoid of debilitating mutations. Genetic mutations increased significantly after the worldwide flood when the crystalline water canopy collapsed suddenly.

Because of the protective effect of the water canopy, there was protection from damaging ultraviole

t rays and gamma rays, with probably much lower incidence of biological diseases triggered by genetic mutations. Because of the higher oxygen levels, the high blood oxygen levels would have contributed to extreme longevity, resistance to bacterial and viral diseases, and greater metabolic efficiency, with consequent greatly enhanced athletic ability. Before Noah’s Flood people lived over 900 years, but today most people live under 90 years.


The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; Speed of Light by Barry Setterfield; D.K Science Encyclopedia.



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