Christian Apologetics Study



The Genesis Young Earth Science Creation Model teaches that God created the entire universe around 6,000 or 7,000 years ago during six consecutive, literal days (24 hours) , as we count time today on planet Earth, according to Exodus 20:11, Exodus 31:17, Genesis 1:1-31, and Genesis 2:1-25. The Young Earth Creation Model is sometimes referred to as the Young Universe Creation Model because it describes the supernatural creation of the entire universe. Young-Earth creationists disagree with atheistic evolution, theistic evolution, old Earth progressive creationism, geocentric creationism, and gap theory creationism. They embrace micro-evolution, which describes biological variation of all plant and animal kinds following an original perfect creation. They completely reject Darwinian macro-evolution (biological evolution of primeval species into new species).

The Young Earth Creation Science Theory argues that natural selection and genetic mutations cannot create new genetic information under natural conditions; therefore, macro-evolution is simply impossible. This theory teaches that evolution is not based on the scientific method, which requires observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and theory. Because scientists cannot observe evolution or conduct experiments on evolution, Darwinism is based only on hypothesis and theory, which is speculation and conjecture, but not real science.

This creation theory is primarily derived from Genesis chapters one and two. The language in the Genesis creation account demonstrates that all of creation was formed into existence during six literal 24-hour periods with no time periods occurring between the days. This theory is supported by the fact that the biblical context requires a literal 24-hour period. The author’s description specifically describes the event in a manner where a normal, common-sense reading comprehends as a literal day: “And there was evening, and there was morning, the first day” (Genesis 1:5). Additionally, every sentence in the original paleo-Hebrew language begins with the word “and.” This is good Hebrew grammar because it indicates each sentence is built upon the preceding statement, clearly demonstrating that the days were consecutive and not separated by long periods or epochs. The Genesis creation history reveals that God’s Words are creative, authoritative, and omnipotent. God’s creative work is primarily accomplished by speaking things into existence, which is another indication of the power and authority of His Word.

God creates by the power of His words. This means that God spoke the universe into existence from invisible energy, according to Psalm 33:9, Isaiah 45:11-12, John 1:1-5, and Hebrew 11:3. This explanation makes no sense until we study quantum physics and string theory where we learn the relationship between invisible energy and visible matter. All matter is made up of atoms, which are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Within these subatomic particles are quarks. Beyond the quarks are smaller energy particles which behave like vibrating strings generating waves of energy. This means that the correct quantum vibration of energy can generate and shape matter. String theory demonstrates that Genesis is supported by quantum physics. Today, the most self-consistent string theories propose 11 dimensions; four correspond to the three ordinary spatial dimensions and time, while the rest are believed to be curled up and not perceptible to humanity, according to some creation researchers.

God also creates through a process of first forming and later filling. The first three days describe God forming the universe while the last three days records God filling the universe, according to Dr. Weston Fields. In other words, God form the light on the First Day before filling the universe with stars, galaxies, planets, and moons on the Fourth Day. God formed the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean on the Second Day before filling the sky and sea with flying creatures and marine life forms on the Fifth Day. God formed a single landmass on the Third Day before filling the supercontinent with land animals and humankind on the Sixth Day (Genesis 1:1-31 NKJV). From Genesis to Revelation, God is always forming order out of chaos, light out of darkness, life out of death, and success out of failure. Today, God is continually forming and filling the lives of believers daily.

On the first day, God forms the entire universe with the creation of time, space, and matter. The Holy Scriptures begins with the universe’s creation when Moses wrote the words “In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth” (Genesis 1:1 NKJV). The word for beginning sketches the creation of time. The word for heaven describes the creation of space. And the word for Earth describes the creation of matter. In other words, this first verse describes formation of the space-time dimension along with invisible energy transformation into all matter, which is explained in Albert Einstein’s famous E=MC2 equation. This equation sketches the energy conversion into matter. The second verse describes the Earth after its original formation and after the universe’s creation: “Now the Earth was formless and empty, darkness covered the Earth’s watery surface and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters” (Genesis 1:2 NKJV).

The original universe was unformed and unfilled because it had no galaxies, no stars, no planets (except Earth), and no moons. The cosmos was decorated with the darkness of outer-space and only the planet Earth existed. The original planet Earth was unformed and unfilled because it existed as a gigantic mass of empty water (Genesis 1:2 NKJV). God’s Spirit moved on the watery mass and generated a spherical shape. All life on Earth depends on water to survive and function properly. Plants need water to properly perform photosynthesis. Humans and animals need water to stay hydrated and for cellular respiration to work. Water contains the integration of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O). The Earth’s surface is the perspective of the entire creation history. This means that after Genesis 1:1, the whole creation account is described from the perspective of a geocentric orientation or from the view of the planet Earth’s surface.

The first day nears its end when God said “let there be light” (Genesis 1:3-5 NKJV), the light that reached the Earth was not natural sunlight. This form of light was supernatural light originating from the Creator Himself because the galaxies, stars, planets, and moons were not created until creation day four. God’s light is much brighter than the noonday sun because Paul said Messiah Yeshua appeared to him as light brighter than the noonday sun (Acts 9:15 NKJV). The Earth’s primeval atmosphere was so heavily overcast with thick darkness that only God’s light could remove the darkness. We read elsewhere in Scripture that God is light (1 John 1:5 NKJV). Messiah Yeshua said “I am the light of the world” (John 8:12 NKJV). We read in Revelation 21:22-24 that the Earth’s inhabitants have no need of the sun because God’s light illuminates the Earth’s atmosphere. God’s light flooded the universe and it generated additional matter and energy required for the formation of galaxies, stars, planets, and moons on the fourth creation day (Genesis 1:14-19 NKJV).

The creation of the heavens and the Earth formed the raw materials required for the following days. The word for heavens” refers to everything beyond the Earth, outer space. In other words, the words for HEAVENS and EARTH describe the entire universe made up of space, time, and matter. The planet Earth is made as mass of water before God’s Spirit give the Earth a spherical shape. God then speaks visible light into existence. The Light of this period was supernatural and it flooded the universe in a flash. This light shined on the Earth before the creation of the sun, moon, and stars. God then separates the light from the darkness and names the light “DAY” and the darkness “NIGHT.” All of this creative work occurs during one day.

On the second day, God forms the Earth’s atmosphere when He divided the waters by creating the firmament. The pre-flood atmosphere was superior to the post flood atmosphere. This primeval atmosphere facilitated optimum genetic expression in all living systems, which contributed to the worldwide gigantism and longevity in all life forms discovered in the fossil record. The Holy Scriptures describes this atmosphere as the firmament.

The word firmament originates from the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the Hebrew raki’a. This word means simply “expansion.” It denotes the space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately above Earth bound observers. They who rendered raki’a by firmamentum regarded it as a solid body. The language of Scripture is not scientific but popular and visual, and hence we read either of the sun rising and setting or of the stars falling from heaven, which is also used here in Genesis with the word firmament. It appears the word for firmament was used to describe solidity and expansion. It formed a division between the waters above and the waters below (Genesis 1:7). The raki’a supported the upper reservoir (Psalm 148:4). It was the support also of the heavenly bodies (Genesis 1:14), and is spoken of as having “windows” and “doors” (Genesis 7:11; Isaiah 24:18; Malachi 3:10) through which the rain and snow might descend. The word “firmament” is mentioned twice in the Psalms as the place of God’s handiwork (Psalms 19:1; 150:1). This term is mentioned again in the books of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:22-26; 10:1) and Daniel (Daniel 12:3), the firmament is always related to Creation. Therefore, the word firmament demonstrates that the Holy Scriptures employ the language of visual appearance and not the language of precise scientific description.

The “waters above the firmament” describe a frozen water canopy surrounding the pre-flood Earth. In other words, when God spoke, the concentrated hydrogen in the magnetic canopy bonded into crystalline lattice among the water molecules. A thin, solid transparent water canopy was thus created, suspended by its own superconductivity as a crystalline water canopy over the watery Earth, according to Dr. Carl Baugh. This frozen crystalline water canopy existed in the pre-flood atmosphere for 10 generations because there was no outer-space bombardment of Earth before the global flood. When it collapsed into liquid rain, the extreme cooling effect began the post-flood Ice Age. Some creation science researchers believe the existence of a canopy as a possible cause for a variety of pre-flood anomalies, including human longevity and the apparent lack of rain or rainbows. They argue that such a canopy would filter out much of the short wave cosmic radiation that is harmful to plants, animals, and humans. The Earth’s pre-flood ozone layer and frozen water canopy contributed to the primeval longevity and gigantism observed in all living system found throughout the fossil record.

The formation of Earth’s atmosphere formed a barrier between waters above and the waters below. The atmosphere is the Gaseous envelope that surrounds the planet Earth. Near the surface it has a well-defined chemical composition. In addition to gases, the atmosphere contains solid and liquid particles in suspension. Today the scientific community has divided the atmosphere into five main layers: in ascending order, the troposphere (surface 10–13 kilometers); the stratosphere (50 kilometers); the mesosphere (50 to 80 kilometers); the thermosphere (80 to 480 kilometers); and the exosphere (from 480 kilometers and gradually dissipating). Most of the atmosphere consists of neutral atoms and molecules, but in the ionosphere a significant fraction is electrically charged. The ionosphere begins near the top of the stratosphere but is most distinct in the thermosphere.

On the third day, God formed a gigantic landmass, a vast ocean, and plant life. The formation of the Earth’s super-continent included three main layers: the crust (on the outside), the mantle (underneath the crust), and the core (the Earth’s center). The core is made up of an inner core and an outer core. The supercontinent that God made is sometime referred to as Pangea by creation scientists. Before the global flood, Pangea covered about half the Earth and was completely surrounded by a world ocean called Panthalassa. Early during the global flood, Pangea began to break apart. Its segments, Laurasia (composed of all the present-day northern continents) and Gondwana (the present-day southern continents) gradually receded during the early post-flood days of Peleg (Genesis 10:25 NKJV), resulting in the formation of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. This means the pre-flood Earth’s surface was probably covered by 50 percent landmass and 50 percent water, according to many creation science researchers. Most of the Earth’s water was located in deep chambers beneath the solid ground. This means that during the third creation day the Earth changed from a watery sphere into a planet with an irregular surface with ocean basins and a single continental landmass covered with plant life. The plant life existed in the super-ocean and on the landmass in great diversity (Genesis 1:9-13 NKJV).

The super-ocean Panthalassa surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the pre-flood generations. This ocean included the Pacific Ocean to the west and north and the Tethys Ocean to the southeast. This ocean became the Pacific Ocean, following the closing of the Tethys basin and the breakup of Pangaea, which created the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian Ocean basins following the great flood. The Panthalassic is often called the Paleo-Pacific (“old Pacific”) because the Pacific Ocean developed from the great flood to the Present. Today the ocean covers nearly 75 percent of the Earth’s surface and is divided into major oceans and smaller seas. The three principal oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian, are largely delimited by land and submarine topographic boundaries. All are connected to what is sometimes called the Southern Ocean, the waters encircling Antarctica. Important marginal seas, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, are partially enclosed by landmasses or island arcs. The largest are the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, Caribbean and adjacent waters, Mediterranean, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Yellow and China Seas, and Sea of Japan.

The formation of plant life with self-sustaining reproductive capability was among the first life forms made on planet Earth. All known life-forms possess either DNA or RNA. DNA means deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is the chemical substance of genes. The DNA structure includes two strands wound around each other in a double helix to resemble a twisted ladder and this structure was first described by Francis Crick and James D. Watson. Each strand is a long chain of repeating nucleotides: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Likewise, RNA stands for ribonucleic acid and it consists of strands of repeating nucleotides joined in chainlike fashion, but the strands are single (except in certain viruses), and it has the nucleotide uracil (U) where DNA has thymine (T).

The DNA and RNA molecules actually carry the instructions for creating the biochemical information system we call life. DNA contains the actual blueprint for building life molecules, and RNA carries that information to other parts of the cell. We should think of DNA as being like a compact disk complete with complex information, and the RNA as the CD player. Without the RNA, the cells would have no way of understanding the information contained in the DNA, which is the information that will direct the protein molecules to form or repair living cells. The instructions for building RNA are contained in the DNA. This fact would be like having a CD that contained all of the instructions explaining how to build a CD player. However, if there were no CD player to play the information on, how could we ever get those instructions out? This means that DNA and RNA are chemically codependent and were created into existence simultaneously, according to many creation science researchers.

On the fourth day, God filled the universe with galaxies, stars, planets, and moons from the matter and energy created during the universal flash of light on the first day. These heavenly spheres were to function as markers for years, seasons, months, weeks, and days (Genesis 1:14-19 NKJV). The sun marked the day (sunset to sunset), the moon marked the month (new moon to new moon), and the stars marked the seasons (spring, summer, winter, and autumn). The pre-flood year was 360 days long, its month equaled 30 days, and its week equal seven days, according to some creation science researchers. Time as we know it began during this day; however, if we could measure the period of the first three days, each day would equal 24 hours in duration because Exodus 20:11 says God created all things in six days.

The light from the stars reach the Earth rapidly. The speed of light was faster during the creation week than it is today (300,000 km per second) because the speed of light has been slowing down since the creation week, according to astronomer Barry Setterfield. Animals and plants were able to survive faster light speed because the pre-flood crystalline canopy offered stronger protection from deadly outer-space radiation, according to Dr. Carl Baugh. The star light was also able to reach the planet Earth faster because of the gravitational space time dilation effect proliferating throughout the universe during the creation week, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys.

The creation of galaxies included billions of star systems and interstellar matter that make up the universe. The Galaxies vary considerably in size, composition, structure, and activity, but nearly all are arranged in groups, or clusters, containing from a few galaxies to as many as 10,000. Each is composed of millions to trillions of stars; in many, as in the Milky Way Galaxy, nebulae can be detected. A large fraction of the bright galaxies in the sky are spiral galaxies, with a main disk in which spiral arms wind out from the center. The Milky Way Galaxy is probably located near the center of the universe, according to Dr. Russell Humphreys. The stars in galaxies are massive celestial body of gas that shines by radiant energy generated inside it. The Milky Way Galaxy contains hundreds of billions of stars and only small fractions are visible to the unaided eye. The Sun is a star around which the components of the solar system revolve. This star system was created less than 10,000 years ago and is the dominant body in our solar system, with more than 99 percent of its mass.

The creation of planets included large natural bodies orbiting the Sun or another star system. The word planet comes from the Greek for “wanderer,” because the planets’ positions change relative to those of the stars. The eight recognized planets that orbit the Sun are, in order of increasing distance, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The moon was created to be the sole natural satellite of Earth. The moon orbits from west to east at a mean distance of approximately 384,400 kilometers. It is less than one-third the size of Earth. Its surface gravity is about one-sixth that of Earth and its gravitational pull is largely responsible for Earth’s tides. The Moon shines by reflected sunlight. It rotates on its axis in about 29.5 days, in exactly the time it takes to orbit Earth, and it therefore always presents the same face to Earth. However, that face is lit by the Sun at different angles as the Moon revolves around Earth, causing it to display different phases over the month, from new to full.

On the fifth day, God filled the sky with flying creatures and the ocean with marine life forms. These creatures included fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds, and insects. The fossil record show that these creatures were larger in size probably because they lived longer in an environment designed for maximum genetic expression. God created many other life forms during the Fifth Day, but only the fishes and birds are mentioned. God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.” (Genesis 1:20-23 NKJV). Furthermore, when God created all marine life forms and all flying creatures, this may be the time when God made flying insects also. All of these creatures are made with the ability to perpetuate their kind by biological reproduction. The creatures made on Day Five are the first creatures blessed by God.

The creation of marine reptiles included the ancestors of the Leviathan. The Leviathan is the marine animal described by God in the book of Job (chapter 41) as a terrifying fire-breathing sea monster. The creature is described as a strong beast with a tough outer “armor”. He cannot be pulled out with a fishhook and no warrior dares to fight him. This animal breathed fire and snorted out smoke. The Leviathan is a reference to an extinct animal that was alive and known to those that lived during the pre-flood and early post flood eras. This animal was probably a plesiosaur, such as the Kronosaurus, others have proposes it was the giant armored crocodile Sarcosuchus.
The creation of flying reptiles included the Pterosaurs. Their wings were designed by God with a membrane of skin, muscle, and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger. Some kinds had long, fully toothed jaws and long tails, while other kinds had a highly reduced tail, and some lacked teeth. Many sported furry coats made up of hair-like filaments, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings.

On the sixth day, God filled the Earth’s landmass with animals, and humankind. This day’s work included the creation of land dwelling insects, reptiles, mammals, flightless birds, along with sauropod and theropod dinosaurs. God created many other living systems during the Sixth Day, but Moses only mentions a few creatures and humankind. The global flood and post-flood climatic transformations caused massive extinctions that decimated many land animal kinds created on the sixth day. Many pre-flood animal kinds are only found within the fossil record. The post-flood Earth was replenished with animals with superior capacity to adapt to changing environments. (Genesis 1:24-31 NKJV).

God reveals that each living creature on the land is created “according to their kind.” This refutes the notion that all species of animals evolved from a single, common, primeval organism. It supports the scientific evidence that living creatures have adapted over time to their environment, while there is no convincing evidence that one species of animal has evolved into another. God created humankind in His own image. God saw everything that He had made, and it was “good” (1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31). It is interesting to note that God declared all that he had made on the sixth day “very good” perhaps to stress the relative significance of this day in comparison to the prior days.

Before God creates humankind, the Creator takes counsel with Himself (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit), and “God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, in our likeness’” (Genesis 1:26). These words are an early revelation of the Divine Trinity and they are part of the foundation for such, as God reveals an “us” within the Godhead. God makes humankind, and humankind is made in the image of God (men and women are made in God’s Triune image) and we are special above all other life forms. To emphasize this fact, God places humanity in authority over the Earth and over all the other life forms. God blesses humankind and commands them to reproduce, fill the Earth and subdue it. God announces that humankind and all other land animals are to eat plants alone. Finally, God’s creative work is complete by the conclusion of the Sixth Day. The entire universe in all its beauty and perfection was fully formed in six literal, consecutive, 24-hour days. At the completion of His creation, God announces that His creation was very good.

On the Seventh Day, God concluded His work on creation; and He RESTED, not because God was tired, but because the seventh day of the creation week was a type of the Sabbath. This appears clear from Exodus 20:11 because Moses wrote that “For in six days the Lord made Heaven and Earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the SEVENTH day; wherefore the Lord blessed the SABBATH day, and hallowed it.” According to the paleo-Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Greek Septuagint version of the Holy Bible, this passage says that God CEASE from working (Genesis 2:1-2 NKJV and LXX), which indicates that God was never tired, but that God only stopped working on the seventh day. In other words, this day reveals that God is establishing a pattern of one day in the seven day week for humankind to rest, to reflect, to worship, and to enjoy life. The keeping of this day will eventually be a distinguishing trait of God’s chosen people (Exodus 20:8-11).

Many creation science researchers believe the young Earth creation science theory is the most biblical and scientific view. They are convinced that this theory reveals how God created the Universe less than 10,000 years ago before renovating it and creating all known life forms on Earth in six consecutive, literal days (24 hours) , as we count time today on planet Earth (Exodus 20:11). One potential problem for this creation theory is the science of astronomy. If the light from a star is 10 million light years away, then that light presumably takes 10 million years to reach the planet earth, and astronomers are witnessing ancient history. While God could have created the light in such a manner to appear much older than it really is, how does an astronomer explain star explosions from distant places in the universe? Do astronomers witness explosions from stars that never existed? Do these explosions somehow exceed the known speed of light (300,000 kilometers per second)? Or is it possible that the universe is much older than young-earth creation science researchers believe it is? Many young earth creation astronomers answer these questions with scientific research indicating that the universe expanded rapidly during the creation week causing gravitational space time dilation, according to astrophysicist Dr. Russell Humphreys. Additionally, they argue that the speed of light was faster during the past than it is today, according to astrophysicist Barry Setterfield. In other words, the slowing down of light-speed along with the gravitational space time dilation effect makes the universe both 16 billion years old and less than 10,000 years old, according to Dr. Chuck Missler.

The Young Earth creation theory appears to be the most biblically consistent view because the Holy Scriptures reveal that God always create things fully functional and instantaneously with little or no time involved. For example, when Moses threw his staff down on the ground, God transformed it into a snake immediately (Exodus 4:3, 7:10-12) because no evolution was necessary for the Creator. Furthermore, Messiah Yeshua who is God manifest in human flesh (John 1-14, 1-Timothy 3:16) never used evolution or progressive creation to accomplish His miracles recorded in the four gospels. Therefore, the Young Earth creation view is clearly the most biblical because all other creation theories attempt to mix philosophical naturalism with biblical supernaturalism. Additionally, we must understand that the Genesis account of creation was never intended to be a complete scientific explanation of creation history nor was it intended to be a complete catalogue of all the humans and animals living in the past. We should realize that it would have been impossible for any human author to write all this history. When Messiah Yeshua was resurrected, He showed His disciples many signs that John said could not all be written in a book (John. 20:30 NKJV). In other words, the primary purpose of Genesis was to highlight the major creative acts of God, which portends God’s future plan for humanity.

Genesis chapter one reveals the first account of creation, while Genesis chapter two discusses the second creation account by showing the details of the Sixth Day. The first chapter reveals that God calls the universe into existence in an orderly and symmetrical manner. The words UNFORMED and UNFILLED provide a structure for the six days of creation. The first three days of forming corresponds to the last three days of filling. God is presented as a person. He commands the universe into existence. The words “God said and God saw that it was good” offers shape to the creation history because these key words introduce every act of creation, while emphasizing the perfection of God’s work. Each creation day begins in the evening and concludes in the morning because the ancient Israelites calculated the day from sunset to sunset, which explains why evening is mentioned before morning. The seventh day is the beginning of human history; therefore, it has no evening or morning. Genesis 1: 27 reveal that Humankind (man and woman) reflects God in a spiritual rather than a physical sense. God grants humanity the power and capability to rule, create, and make moral decisions. The creation history takes place over seven days because seven is God’s number of completion.

Finally, many critics of the Young Earth Creation theory argue that its supporters embrace hyper-literalism and over interpretation. Atheists and agnostics often attack the Holy Scriptures with Hyper-literalism because many critics of the Sacred Scriptures fail to understand that the Holy Bible uses the visual language of the Middle Eastern paleo-Hebrew culture and not the language of precise scientific description. Although the Young Earth Creation theory appears to be consistent with the Holy Scriptures, some biblical scholars and creation scientists reject this theory because they believe the

Holy Bible and scientific observations are against its conclusions. Therefore, while this theory appears to be the most concrete and direct interpretation of the Genesis creation account, it ignores biblical creation passages outside of Genesis and it ignores huge volumes of scientific literature related to the subject of origins. This analysis does not mean this theory is wrong, but that the Young Earth Creation theory needs to be supported by more biblical, historic, and scientific evidence.

The New King James Version (NKJV); The Alexandrian Sepuagint LXX transladed by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Halley’s Bible Handbook by Henry Halley; Three Views on Creation and Evolution by J.P. Morland & J.M. Reynolds; Understanding Creation by Mark Worthon & Hill Roberts; Understanding The Bible by Kendell H. Easley; The Dead Sea Scrolls by Craig A. Evans; Christian Apologetics by Doug Powell; Theories of the Universe by Gary F. Moring; String Theory by George Musser; The New Answers Book by Ken Ham; Biblical Creationism by Henry Morris; Genesis Conflict by Walter Veith, Unformed and Unfilled by Dr. Weston Fields; Creation by Dr. Grant Jeffrey; Starlight and Time by Dr. Russell Humphreys; Panorama of Creation by Dr. Carl Baugh; The Speed of Light Articles by Barry Setterfield; The Inspired Evidence by Julie Von Vett & Brue Malone; The Genesis Conflict by Dr. Walter Veith; The DK Science Encyclopedia Edited by Susan Mckeever.



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